BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 2 Changes in Medical Education

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 2 Changes in Medical Education

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 2 Changes in Medical Education


Capella university

BHA-FPX4002 History of the United States Health Care System

Prof. Name



The landscape of medical practice has undergone rapid evolution, demanding doctors to adapt continually and equip themselves with the requisite knowledge and skills to meet increasing expectations. This paper aims to delineate the transformations in medical education spanning from the 1800s to the present day. Furthermore, it will delve into a comparison between the apprenticeship and academic models of medical training, charting their progression. Lastly, it will assess the importance of comprehending the history of medical education and its implications for current and future medical graduates.

The Changing Scope of Medical Education

Medicine has undergone dynamic shifts throughout history, shaping its contemporary form. A pivotal aspect of this evolution lies in the transformation of medical education. In the United States, the inaugural medical school was established by John Morgan in 1765, originally known as the Philadelphia College of Medicine before being renamed the University of Pennsylvania (Slawson, 2012). During the 1800s, medical education primarily revolved around preceptors delivering lectures to students, lacking structured oversight (Slawson, 2012). Prospective medical students during this era were required to fulfill certain criteria, including being at least 21 years old, undergoing two years of schooling, and completing three years of apprenticeship training (Slawson, 2012).

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 2 Changes in Medical Education

Contrastingly, contemporary medical education follows a markedly different trajectory. Aspiring medical students are mandated to obtain a four-year bachelor’s degree, pass the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), and secure admission to an institution accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) (DeZee et al., 2012). Subsequently, students undergo intensive academic coursework followed by rigorous clinical residency apprenticeships, culminating in the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) (DeZee et al., 2012). Presently, aspiring doctors embark on an educational journey spanning eleven years post-secondary education, underscoring the rigorous and dynamic nature of modern medical training.

Apprenticeship versus Academic Models

The foundations of contemporary medical education are rooted in the apprenticeship and academic paradigms. Each model offers distinct avenues for professional development, fostering learning and advancement opportunities for prospective medical students. The apprenticeship model champions direct engagement in clinical settings, emphasizing hands-on learning to cultivate problem-solving skills and a profound understanding of medical challenges (Rassie, 2017). This approach, epitomized by figures like William Osler, underscores the value of bedside learning and early patient interaction (Swanson, 2012).

Conversely, the academic model prioritizes structured education, characterized by task-driven assessments and didactic learning (DeZee et al., 2012). The seminal Flexner Report of 1910 spearheaded reforms in medical education, advocating for rigorous curricula, practical laboratory work, and faculty involvement in research (Barzansky, 2010). Integration of both apprenticeship and academic models cultivates well-rounded physicians, combining theoretical knowledge with practical clinical skills, a hallmark of contemporary medical education.

Involving Medical Education by Understanding History

Revisiting the annals of medical history affords students a comprehensive understanding of medical theory’s origins and the role of scientific advancements in shaping care practices. Delving into healthcare history enables the medical community to glean insights and avoid past mistakes. For instance, Florence Nightingale’s advocacy for surgical safety and hand hygiene standards in the 1800s underscores the significance of evidence-based practices in combating infections (Newsom, 2003).


The trajectory of medicine has been propelled by monumental advancements and a commitment to education. The amalgamation of apprenticeship and academic models in modern medical education underscores the importance of diverse learning approaches. By embracing the lessons of history, medical education continues to evolve, ensuring the cultivation of proficient and empathetic healthcare practitioners.


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BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 2 Changes in Medical Education

DeZee, K. J., Artino, A. R., Elnicki, D. M., Hemmer, P. A., & Durning, S. J. (2012). Medical education in the United States of America. Medical Teacher, 34(7), 521–525.

Newsom, S. (2003). The history of infection control: Florence Nightingale part 1: 1820-1856. British Journal of Infection Control, 4(2), 22-25.

Rassie, K. (2017). The apprenticeship model of clinical medical education: Time for structural change. The New Zealand Medical Journal (Online), 130(1461), 66-72.

Slawson, R. G. (2012). Medical Training in the United States Prior to the Civil War*. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 17(1), 11–27.