BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 3 Historical Trend Analysis

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 3 Historical Trend Analysis

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 3 Historical Trend Analysis


Capella university

BHA-FPX4002 History of the United States Health Care System

Prof. Name


Historical Trend Analysis

Analyzing historical trends and changes demonstrates the advancement made in American healthcare throughout the years. Studying these changes allows for future healthcare growth and development. Changes in health trends impact the daily activities of healthcare administrators, as adjustments are necessary to meet evolving needs. Healthcare is an ever-changing market.

Trends and Regulations

Access to healthcare leads to better patient care. When patients can obtain proper care and treatment, prognosis improves. Healthcare access is crucial for reducing mortality and disease progression. Quality healthcare is essential for fostering healthy communities and populations. It provides patients with a sense of security and trust towards healthcare professionals, resulting in higher compliance and better health outcomes. Patients who receive quality care are more likely to follow up and monitor their health.

The cost of healthcare has been a significant setback, deterring patients from seeking medical attention when needed. However, changes in trends and regulations over the past three centuries have made medical costs more manageable.

Healthcare Access

Healthcare access is vital, as patients need to obtain treatment or medical attention when sick. Limitations in healthcare lead to increased mortality and disease progression. Throughout history, various regulatory measures have been implemented to improve healthcare access, such as state medical boards in the 1800s, the Hill-Burton Act in the 1900s, and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in the 2000s.

Healthcare Quality

Healthcare quality is crucial for better treatments and patient prognosis. Over time, initiatives like the U.S. Army Medical Department in the 1800s, the Center for Improvement in Healthcare Quality in the 1900s, and the Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 have aimed to enhance healthcare quality, promoting patient participation and accountability for providers.

Healthcare Cost

Healthcare cost has been a barrier to accessing medical attention. However, the introduction of healthcare insurance in the 1800s, prepaid health plans in the 1900s, and systems like the Outpatient Prospective Payment System in the 2000s have made healthcare more affordable, enabling patients to seek timely medical attention.

Trend Analysis

Healthcare progress over the past three eras has demonstrated significant advancements in access, quality, and cost. Access to healthcare has evolved through regulatory measures, improving patient care and treatments. Healthcare quality has increased, ensuring higher standards of care and patient safety. Cost has become more manageable with the introduction of insurance and payment systems, making healthcare more accessible overall.


In conclusion, changes and advancements in the healthcare industry have led to significant progress in the quality of care, patient outcomes, and healthcare cost. Access to healthcare has improved, allowing patients to receive timely treatment. Quality of care has increased through regulatory measures, ensuring patient safety. Healthcare cost has become more manageable, enabling more individuals to afford necessary medical care. Overall, healthcare has improved over the past three eras, resulting in better prognosis, treatment, and disease management.


American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities. (n.d.). We maintain the highest standards for outpatient accreditation. Retrieved from

Center for Improvement in Healthcare Quality. (n.d.). Welcome to CIHQ. Retrieved from

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2021a). Acute inpatient PPS. Retrieved from

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2021b). Clinical laboratory improvement amendments (CLIA). Retrieved from

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2021c). CY 2002 Physician fee schedule proposed rule with comment period. Retrieved from

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 3 Historical Trend Analysis

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2021d). Hospital inpatient quality reporting program. Retrieved from

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2021e). Hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS). Retrieved from

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2021f). National correct coding initiative edits. Retrieved from

Chaudhry, H.J. (2010). The important role of medical licensure in the United States. Academic Medicine, 85(11), 1657. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181f557ed (n.d.). History of healthy people. Retrieved from

Kroth, P. J., & Young, K. M. (2018). Sultz & Young’s health care USA: Understanding its organization and delivery (9th ed.). Jones & Bartlett.

McCall, N., Korb, J., Petersons, A., & Moore, S. (2003). Reforming Medicare payment: Early effects of the 1997 Balanced Budget Act on postacute care. The Milbank Quarterly, 81(2), 277–173. (2021). Find & compare nursing homes, hospitals & other providers near you. Retrieved from

Moehling, C. M., & Thomasson, M. A. (2012, April). Saving babies: The contribution of Sheppard-Towner to the decline in infant mortality in the 1920s (Working Paper 17996.). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from

Quality Payment Program. (n.d.). APMs overview. Retrieved from

Reilly R. F. (2016). Medical and surgical care during the American Civil War, 1861-1865. Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings, 29(2), 138–142.

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 3 Historical Trend Analysis

Truex E. S. (2014). Medical licensing and discipline in America: A history of the Federation of State Medical Boards. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 102(2), 133–134.

University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing. (n.d.). History of hospitals. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Labor. (n.d.). Procedure manual; Division of federal employees’ compensation (DFEC). Retrieved from

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (n.d.). Part II: 1938, Food, Drug, Cosmetic Act. Retrieved from

Weil, T. P. (2002, Summer). Managed competition using both market-driven and regulatory strategies. Managed Care Quarterly, 10(3), 32–40.

Young, K. M., & Kroth, P. J. (2018). Sultz & Young’s health care USA: Understanding Its organization and delivery (9th ed.). Jones & Bartlett.

Appendix: Evolution of Access, Quality, and Cost in Health Care

Table 1: Trend Analysis of Health Care Milestones

Time Period

Regulatory Legislation, Agencies, or Quality Initiatives

Health Care Access

Health Care Quality

Health Care Costs

1800s State medical boards Establishment of medical practice regulations protecting patients (Truex, 2014) Promotion and implementation of health awareness (Reilly, 2016) Provision of lower health care costs through insurance (Scofea, 1994)
U.S Army Medical Department and United States Sanitary Commission Implementation of new health care regulations and awareness (Reilly, 2016) Implementation of medical care and treatments in hospitals (Reilly, 2016)
Healthcare Insurance Introduction of health insurance covering non-death related costs (Scofea, 1994)
Hospital Treatment Provision of surgeries, outpatient, and inpatient services (Scofea, 1994)
Regulating Healthcare Implementation of state healthcare regulations and physician licensing (Chaudhry, 2010)
U.S Army Established the Hospital Corps Maintenance of medical records for better follow-up care (Weedn, 2020)
1900s Hill-Burton Act Federal grant program providing hospitals with funds (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2021a)
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act Regulation of medical equipment and medicine labeling (Young & Kroth, 2018; FDA, n.d.)
Self-Pay is the primary source of healthcare services Patient payment for healthcare services (Young & Kroth, 2018)
Introduction of prepaid health plans (direct contracting) Improved availability of healthcare for working Americans (Young & Kroth, 2018)
Center for Improvement in Healthcare Quality (CIHQ) Regulation and accreditation services for healthcare treatments (Center for Improvement in Healthcare Quality, n.d.)
2000s Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Mandated coverage of preventive care services at no patient cost (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2021b)
Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 Improvement of patient safety and reduction of incidents (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2021c)
Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) Medicare payment for hospital outpatient services based on flat rates (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2021d)
Medicare Care Compare Platform for comparing medical facilities (, 2021)
Hospital Quality Reporting (HQR) and Initiative (H.Q.I.) Mandatory reporting of quality issues by medical providers (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2021e)
Managed Market Competition; Consumer-driven health plans Introduction of consumer-driven health plans (Well, 2002)