BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Urinary Lab
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BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Urinary Lab

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Urinary Lab

Name

Capella University

BIO FPX 1000 Human Biology

Prof. Name

Date

Urinary Analysis: Importance and Clinical Implications

The examination of urine, known as urinalysis, is a diagnostic procedure crucial for evaluating the conditions of the urinary tract, stomach, kidneys, or any morbidities resulting from hypertension or diabetes (Mayo Clinic, 2019). This article will expound upon the purpose and significance of urinary analysis, highlighting the repercussions of neglecting this essential examination. It will also delve into different types of diabetes and their respective management strategies. Additionally, the article will explore the reasons and consequences of detecting blood traces in urine.

Purpose and Importance of Urinary Analysis

Urinalysis, a comprehensive assessment of urine, forms an integral part of routine medical examinations conducted for health assessments and disease detection (Mayo Clinic, 2021). This analysis is essential when patients present symptoms such as painful urination, blood in urine, diabetes, kidney issues, liver problems, or other urinary concerns like those encountered during pregnancy tests. A urinalysis aids in identifying the origins of specific symptoms and indications of associated diseases.

Urinalysis can be conducted through three methods: a physical examination assessing color, volume, and density; a chemical examination pinpointing various components; and a microscopic examination identifying microorganisms, cells, and crystals in urine (Milani & Jialal, 2021). The samples derived from urinalysis can unveil more than 220 diseases, making it imperative for disease identification, including diabetes, hypertension, renal, or heart failure.

Diabetes and its Types

Diabetes, a chronic health condition significantly impacting patients’ lives, is characterized by insulin dysfunction affecting insulin utilization or production (World Health Organization, 2022). Diabetes contributes to severe complications such as renal failure, heart attacks, strokes, blindness, and lower limb amputation (World Health Organization, 2022). The two main types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) (Saeedi et al., 2019). Type 1 diabetes results from malfunctioning insulin-producing cells, while type 2 diabetes is associated with inefficient insulin utilization, often exacerbated by increased body weight and a sedentary lifestyle.

Management of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes, a lifelong condition, necessitates effective management through medication and self-management techniques. Type 1 diabetes is managed with insulin or gene therapy, including beta cell replacement therapy. Type 2 diabetes can be effectively managed by maintaining optimal body weight, controlling blood pressure, adopting an active lifestyle, and adhering to a healthy diet, along with the use of insulin medications (Tan et al., 2019).

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Urinary Lab

Reasons for Blood in Urine

The presence of blood in urine can result from the weakening of kidney blood vessels due to hyperglycemia. Chronic morbidity, dysfunction, and failure of vital organs like kidneys, eyes, nerves, heart, and blood arteries may occur due to hyperglycemia (Abebe et al., 2019). Blood cell traces in urine may indicate additional causes such as kidney disease, ureter issues, or prostate disease, leading to vision loss, cardiovascular dysfunctions, or limb ulcers (Abebe et al., 2019; American Diabetes Association, 2021).

Patient Results

Anna, a 62-year-old patient residing in Houston, presented at the outpatient department of the kidney center with complaints of high blood pressure and kidney pain. Her medical history revealed an 18-year history of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Further investigation included an ultrasound of the kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder, along with a complete urinalysis.

According to the reports, the bladder’s walls appeared normal, with pre- and post-void volumes of 684 and 152 ml, respectively. The left kidney displayed a cortical thickness of 2.0 cm and a size of 10.2 cm, with a visible straightforward cyst measuring 1.2 cm in the lower pole. While simple kidney cysts may not require immediate treatment, they can potentially lead to kidney malfunction if left untreated, resulting in hypertension or renal failure.

Urinalysis Result

Patient name: Anne Hathway

Test Level
pH 5.8
Urea 27
Creatinine 1.6
Bilirubin 8.1
Urobilinogen 4.2

Elevated levels of Urobilinogen and Creatinine indicate a heightened risk of liver and kidney failure.

References

Abebe, M., Adane, T., Kefyalew, K., Munduno, T., Fasil, A., Biadgo, B., Ambachew, S., & Shahnawaz, S. (2019). Variation of urine parameters among diabetic patients: A cross-sectional study. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences, 29(1). https://doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v29i1.9

American Diabetes Association. (2021). 11. Chronic kidney disease and risk management: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2022. Diabetes Care, 45(Supplement_1), S175–S184. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc22-s011

Lawrence, J. M., Divers, J., Isom, S., Saydah, S., Imperatore, G., Pihoker, C., Marcovina, S. M., Mayer-Davis, E. J., Hamman, R. F., Dolan, L., Dabelea, D., Pettitt, D. J., & Liese, A. D. (2021). Trends in prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents in the US, 2001-2017. JAMA, 326(8), 717. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.11165

Mayo Clinic. (2021, October 14). Urinalysis – Mayo Clinic. Www.mayoclinic.org. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/urinalysis/about/pac-20384907#:~:text=It

Milani, D. A. Q., & Jialal, I. (2021, May 9). Urinalysis. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557685/

Norris, J. M., Johnson, R. K., & Stene, L. C. (2020). Type 1 diabetes—early life origins and changing epidemiology. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 8(3), 226–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2213-8587(19)30412-7

Saeedi, P., Petersohn, I., Salpea, P., Malanda, B., Karuranga, S., Unwin, N., Colagiuri, S., Guariguata, L., Motala, A. A., Ogurtsova, K., Shaw, J. E., Bright, D., & Williams, R. (2019). Global and regional diabetes prevalence estimates for 2019 and projections for 2030 and 2045

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Urinary Lab