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Capella 4030 Assessment 3

Capella 4030 Assessment 3: PICO (T) Questions and an Evidence-Based Approach


Capella university

NURS FPX 4030 Making Evidence-Based Decisions

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PICO (T) Questions and an Evidence-Based Approach

Evidence-based research is required for healthcare providers to support their healthcare practices based on the literature. It is crucial to look for quality literature that is credible and related to the research topic. One of the easiest techniques for literature research is the PICO(T) question development. To improve the quality of novel and ongoing health education treatments and programs, healthcare professionals have access to the PICO(T) tool, which allows them to find relevant searches from literature using evidence-based practice. PICO (T) is an abbreviation of P: patient/ problem, I: intervention, C: comparing intervention, O: outcome, and T: time (Brown et al., 2019). Our focus in this paper is to research the topic of Asthma with the help of relevant sources related to a PICO questionnaire. 

Asthma – Explored by PICO (T) Question

A chronic inflammatory condition of the airways is asthma, with the cardinal signs of suffocation, tightening of the chest, wheezing, and cough, as well as the increased exhalation airflow variation that fluctuates over time. Asthma has demonstrated major specific patient differences related to age of onset, linked risk factors, treatment response, and levels of severity. The objective of the paper is to measure the severity of asthma by applying different asthma-related tests as interventions (Louis et al., 2022). Therefore, a PICO (T) question described below is developed: 

In adults/children (P) with periodic/chronic suggestive asthma symptoms, does the use of spirometry testing (I) compared to using standard diagnostic methods (C) lead to a more accurate diagnosis of asthma and/or improved clinical management (O)? 

Grandinetti et al. (2022) showed that about 30% of children have wheezing asthma before the age of three, making it a frequent condition in preschoolers. The onset and progression of wheezing asthma can be influenced by genetics and risk factors that can be changed, such as obesity, exposure to pollution, or smoking. Throughout all ages, prematurity can have a major impact on lung development, wheezing risk, and obstructive respiratory disease. To tackle such issues in asthma patients and perform appropriate diagnostics to effectively manage the conditon, a research question or problem statement should be prepared. The PICO(T) question provides a direction for the research. After writing down this question statement one can do better research for this issue. The PICO(T)  give an outlook to healthcare professionals to apply evidence-based research (EBR) which helps them in their practice.

Identify Sources of Evidence

There are many online relevant and credible sources that could be effective in answering a PICO(T) question regarding asthma diseases. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and ScienceDirect are credible databases that provide authentic articles related to asthma. Some journals for Asthma that include credible, authentic, and reliable information are the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, the Journal of Asthma and Allergy, and the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. They have high impact factors and peer-reviewed authorized articles to find out PICO questions.

A resource to check the credibility of articles presented in these journals is the CRAAP test, which is an acronym for currency, relevance, authority, accuracy, and purpose (Lowe et al., 2021). The literature that can be found on the resources mentioned above has answered the PICO question related to asthma diagnosis through spirometry tests. The articles were found valid as per CRAAP criteria. As the literature was current, relevant, and accurate for the related problem. Healthcare practitioners can make sure that their decisions have the mentioned credibles when developing the PICO framework, which leads to evidence-based practices and improved patient care. Tell us, how based on the craap criteria – these resources mentioned above can provide answers to your particular pico question.

Findings Sources of Evidence Relevant to the Health Care Issue

Some resource findings that justify the use of spirometry testing to diagnose asthma are detailed below: 

  • A study by Gaillard et al. (2021) supported the diagnosis of asthma symptoms in adults and children by spirometry testing. As the main cause of asthma in adults and children is airway blockage, this can be easily found with high-quality spirometry testing. It is one of the tests that support healthcare workers in determining the health of the lungs, adjusting treatment strategies, tracking the evolution of the illness, and educating patients, all of which improve asthma control and quality of life for those who are suffering from the disease. 
  • Another article by Gallucci et al. (2019) conducted a comparison between spirometry tests and other pulmonary function tests for asthma monitoring in children and adults. Spirometry not only helps to diagnose the existing conditions of asthma patients but also provides a timely and accurate prediction of future respiratory attacks. This helps a lot in managing the chronic conditions of asthma and minimizing the risk of attacks in patients at an early age. Other tools used for monitoring and diagnosis of asthma that are compared in this study include Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF), blood and sputum Eosinophils, and Bronchial Provocation Tests. It was concluded that every patient with asthma has a different condition and history. So, personalized care should be applied to the diagnosis and monitoring of asthma. It is important to categorize asthma patients based on their severity of asthma, risk factors involved, and history of disease and then apply the appropriate tools for the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease.

Capella 4030 Assessment 3

The above articles fall under the criteria of CRAAP as they are within the range of five years, relevant to the topic, have authorized authors and published in credible journals, possess accuracy by referencing other research studies, and have the purpose of giving information related to asthma and its diagnostic methods. With the help of CRAAP and PICO questionnaires healthcare workers may improve their capacity to find, analyze, and use high-quality data and research, which will ultimately result in better patient care and healthcare outcomes. These resources help ensure that medical decisions are supported by reliable and pertinent information.

Decision-Making on PICO Question Using the Findings

The above-mentioned literature studies support the use of spirometry testing as compared to standard diagnostic tests to effectively diagnose asthma in patients. Spirometry testing should be used in the diagnosis and treatment of asthma in both adults and children as it is useful for detecting asthma as well as for efficiently controlling chronic disease and forecasting future attacks. Howeover, the studies focuses on developing personalized diagnostic plans according to patient’s condition and because of the heterogenous nature of the disease. Thus, our PICO(T) question concludes that we must integrate spirometry testing in diagnostic methods for efficient diagnosing but consider other methods too.  


In conclusion, Asthma presents as a recurrent and difficult chronic condition that requires vigilant and skilled management from medical specialists. The basis of evidence-based practice is essential to providing quality treatment and improving patient outcomes by applying a PICO (Patient, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) strategy. The PICO question in our study compared spirometry testing with standard diagnostic methods for asthmatic patients. To study relevant and credible resources we utilized CRAAP criteria. The research we performed concluded that spirometry testing is an effective diagnostic approach in which may result in a more accurate diagnosis of asthma. Howeover, it is important to plan diagnosis according to patients conditions and nature of the disease. This research prepared us to use evidence-based practices within our healthcare settings to improve patient care.


Brown, D. (2019). A review of the PubMed PICO tool: Using evidence-based practice in health education. Health Promotion Practice, 21(4), 152483991989336.

Gaillard, E. A., Kuehni, C. E., Turner, S., Goutaki, M., Holden, K. A., de Jong, C. C. M., Lex, C., Lo, D. K. H., Lucas, J. S., Midulla, F., Mozun, R., Piacentini, G., Rigau, D., Rottier, B., Thomas, M., Tonia, T., Usemann, J., Yilmaz, O., Zacharasiewicz, A., & Moeller, A. (2021). European Respiratory Society clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis of asthma in children aged 5–16 years. European Respiratory Journal, 2004173. 

Gallucci, M., Carbonara, P., Pacilli, A. M. G., di Palmo, E., Ricci, G., & Nava, S. (2019). Use of symptoms scores, spirometry, and other pulmonary function testing for asthma Monitoring. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 7(54). 

Capella 4030 Assessment 3

Grandinetti, R., Fainardi, V., Caffarelli, C., Capoferri, G., Lazzara, A., Tornesello, M., Meoli, A., Bergamini, B. M., Bertelli, L., Biserna, L., Bottau, P., Corinaldesi, E., De Paulis, N., Dondi, A., Guidi, B., Lombardi, F., Magistrali, M. S., Marastoni, E., Pastorelli, S., & Piccorossi, A. (2022). Risk factors affecting development and persistence of preschool wheezing: Consensus document of the Emilia-romagna asthma (ERA) study group. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 11(21), 6558. 

Louis, R., Satia, I., Ojanguren, I., Schleich, F., Bonini, M., Tonia, T., Rigau, D., Brinke, A. ten, Buhl, R., Loukides, S., Kocks, J. W. H., Boulet, L.-P., Bourdin, A., Coleman, C., Needham, K., Thomas, M., Idzko, M., Papi, A., Porsbjerg, C., & Schuermans, D. (2022). European respiratory society guidelines for the diagnosis of asthma in adults. European Respiratory Journal. 

Lowe, M. S., Macy, K. V., Murphy, E., & Kani, J. (2021). Questioning CRAAP. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 21(3).

Capella 4030 Assessment 3

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