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Capella 4060 Assessment 1

Capella 4060 Assessment 1: Health Promotion Plan

Name

Capella university

NURS FPX 4060 Practicing in the Community to Improve Population Health

Prof. Name

Date

Community Health Concern: Immunization 

Community health approaches focus on improvement in the whole community’s health, enhancing community resilience to diseases, and decreasing health disparities across the particular community. It is important to analyze the health needs of a community to promote community health. This requires community surveys and the interaction of community health groups with the people living in the community. This is also done by the assessment of community health needs which serves to provide a clear comprehension of communities and uplifts issues that require changes in system levels (Ravaghi et al., 2023). Immunization is one of the strategies to prevent mortality rates globally. Every year 4 million deaths are avoided globally by the implementation of childhood vaccination programs.

Immunization safeguards health, communities, and economies from the vulnerable diseases which vaccines can prevent. Childhood and adult immunizations both are important for declining mortality, morbidity, and mortality rates across communities. There are scenarios where the people in communities suffer from vaccine-preventable diseases due to non-adherence to immunization programs. For example, according to a report by CDC in 2021, the rate of infant immunization lowered to 81 % which is the lowest rate in over a decade (CDC, 2022).

 The significant uncertainty in the promotion of the immunization health plan is that people often consider the side effects of the vaccines to be a major focus. With this fear of acquiring severe side effects from vaccines, people in the communities neglect the importance of immunization in preventing lethal infectious diseases (Kampourakis & McCain, 2019). In such cases, one must weigh the risk of side effects (which is very low or happens in rare cases) to the benefits ratio which is reduced hospitalization and decreased mortality rates as a result of deadly infections.  

Importance of Immunization and Health Promotion Plan   

Immunizations play a key role in sustaining a healthy community. Without timely immunizations, people suffer from various infectious diseases which can be lethal at some point in their lives. With immunization promotion in the communities, one can prevent the onset of diseases that may cause morbidities, disabilities, and mortalities. This results in healthier communities with low rates of hospitalization and deaths. This ultimately enhances the economy of a country by fewer capital expenditures on the treatment of vaccine-preventable diseases. By using vaccines, community health can be ameliorated as immunization prevents the onset of many communicable diseases such as smallpox virus, AIDS, Measles, Polio, etc. Childhood immunization program protects children from acquiring infections during the growing years of their age. Other than that, adult immunizations for emerging infectious agents prevent them from suffering through new infections like COVID-19 and enhance life expectancy and safety (Rodrigues & Plotkin, 2020).

According to World Health Organization (WHO), immunization avoids the onset of 3.5 to 5 million deaths every year from diseases like diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and other vaccine-preventable diseases. According to CDC, 69.7% of children in the U.S. have been vaccinated by the age of 24 months which prevents them from the seven disease series. The COVID-19 pandemic caused millions of deaths worldwide and the spread of the COVID-19 virus was limited by the invention of new vaccines and promoting immunization. The delivery of COVAX vaccines across the globe resulted in improved prevention of COVID-19 (CDC, 2019; World Health Organization, 2020). 

Capella 4060 Assessment 1

Incomplete or no immunization causes the progression of infections as the body is unable to combat the lethal infectious agents. This negligent behavior toward immunization may be due to uncertainties about the safety of vaccines, cultural disbelief, and cognitive biases (Azarpanah et al., 2021). One such incident was found to happen in Graham’s community in Virginia, U.S. The survey results of finding the number of unvaccinated children and adults showed that 50% of people in the community are unvaccinated. The 2020 statistics on percentage compliance of immunization in Virginia state of U.S. were 80.4, 80.9, 81.2, and 77.3 according to age requirements of combined public and private kindergartens (KG), daycares (DC), head start programs (HS), and combined public and private 7th graders, respectively (Virginia Department of Health, 2020). 

Capella 4060 Assessment 1

The reasons they mentioned on the questionnaire included distrust about the safety of vaccines and facing health disparities while undergoing the process of immunization. Parents of infants and young children are skeptical about the safety of vaccines. Lack of knowledge about the highly beneficial actions and low or rare side-effects of vaccines is the major contributor to parental hesitancy towards vaccines.  The community people also mentioned in survey results that health disparities on the basis of race and color were faced in immunization programs. This led to vaccine hesitancy among those people and prevented them from completing the immunization program. Factors like health disparities and lack of trust in vaccine safety are major contributors to incomplete immunization.

These barriers to immunization prevent community dwellers from completing the immunization program against vaccine-preventable diseases. Therefore, this health promotion plan is developed for Graham’s community dwellers. This plan comprises three practical strategies 1) awareness among community members, 2) policy development in the community health system for promoting health equity, and 3) introduction of an immunization camp in the community which will last for three months, conducting one session each month. The duration of each session will be three hours in which community members will be educated on immunizations and immunization will be done for those who are convinced. There will be questionnaires post-educational immunization health camps where people will be asked to answer according to their understanding. This will be an engaging methodology for gaining community members’ understanding of immunization and its implementation.

Participants’ Demographics

This health promotion plan comprises participants of parents and caretakers of infants and young children, older people who are susceptible to infections due to age, and adults who have chronic ailments like asthma who require yearly immunization vaccines for influenza to prevent progressive infection. These people of Graham’s community showed low socioeconomic status and required financial aid to complete immunization programs. The ethnicity of this community is majorly African-American. Most of the community members are married and live as families. The education level of 50 % of community people is up to high school, 10% are uneducated, and the rest were reluctant to share their educational qualifications. Their lifestyle is mediocre due to low income. The families suffer financially and mentally when the burden of managing expenses is too high. This leads to an unstable family with frequent fights among family members.

Health Goals with the Participants

For the accomplishment of this health promotion plan, a community health camp was organized to which the participants of Graham’s community were invited. The participants who attended the health camp included 80% of females who were mothers to infants and children, 10 % older people, and the other 10% adults with chronic diseases. The majority of the community natives were enthusiastic about educational awareness sessions on immunization. The participants of this health promotion plan camp were divided into several groups to promote better communication about creating SMART goals to promote immunization in all age groups.

The SMART goal strategy is approached to attain effective and desirable results while considering the practicality of resources to achieve the desired goals. In SMART goals, S is for specific, M is for measurable, A is for attainable, R is for realistic and T is for time-bound (Deslippe et al., 2022). After healthy communication and active participation, some of the SMART goals developed with community members were as follows:

  1. Find two major causes (measurable) that promote vaccine hesitancy (Specific) among people of Graham’s community and provide two practical methods (realistic and attainable) of promoting immunization by the time the educational and awareness session ends (time-bound). 
  2.  By the end of the session (time-bound), participants will find three health risks (measurable)  in case of no immunization and three convincing reasons (attainable and realistic) for promoting immunization (specific).
  3. Finding one or two methods (measurable) to promote immunization (specific) and how these can be brought into practice (realistic and attainable) by the end of our session (time-bound).

Conclusion

Community health needs are important to assess to promote health and reduce disease spread and mortality rates. This requires community surveys and the development of health promotion plans to fulfill the community health needs. Immunization is a disease prevention strategy used worldwide. Incomplete or no immunization can cause various health problems and ultimately death. One such issue was found in Graham’s community where people living were mostly non-immunized. They faced many health issues and required health promotion plans. This health promotion plan was developed by active interaction with community people using the SMART goals strategy. These SMART goals were specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and time-bound. 

References

Azarpanah, H., Farhadloo, M., Vahidov, R., & Pilote, L. (2021). Vaccine hesitancy: Evidence from an adverse events following immunization database, and the role of cognitive biases. BMC Public Health, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11745-1 

CDC. (2022, September 22). Fast facts on global immunization. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/immunization/data/fast-facts.html 

CDC. (2019). FastStats – immunization. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/immunize.htm 

Deslippe, A. L., Bains, A., Loiselle, S., Kasvis, P., Mak, I., Weiler, H., & Cohen, T. R. (2022). SMART goals of children of 6–12 years enrolled in a family-centred lifestyle intervention for childhood obesity: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Pediatric Obesity, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.12973 

Kampourakis, K., & McCain, K. (2019). Uncertainties in vaccination. In K. Kampourakis & K. McCain, Uncertainty (1st ed., pp. 93–106). Oxford University PressNew York. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190871666.003.0007 

Capella 4060 Assessment 1

Ravaghi, H., Guisset, A.-L., Elfeky, S., Nasir, N., Khani, S., Ahmadnezhad, E., & Abdi, Z. (2023). A scoping review of community health needs and assets assessment: Concepts, rationale, tools and uses. BMC Health Services Research, 23(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-022-08983-3 

Rodrigues, C. M. C., & Plotkin, S. A. (2020). Impact of vaccines; health, economic and social perspectives. Frontiers in Microbiology, 11. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01526 

Virginia Department of Health. (2020). VIRGINIA ANNUAL IMMUNIZATION SURVEY (VAIS) – immunization. https://www.vdh.virginia.gov/immunization/datamanagement/vaimmsurvey/ 

World Health Organization. (2020). Vaccines and immunization. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/health-topics/vaccines-and-immunization#tab=tab_1 

Capella 4060 Assessment 1