Phillip January 9, 2024 No Comments

Capella 4060 Assessment 3

Capella 4060 Assessment 3: Disaster Recovery Plan 

Name

Capella university

NURS FPX 4060 Practicing in the Community to Improve Population Health

Prof. Name

Date

Disaster Recovery Plan

Good afternoon everyone, I am ____ working as a senior nurse at Valley City Regional Hospital. Today, I am going to talk about the disaster recovery plan. I will be discussing the unfortunate event that took place two years ago and required a prompt disaster recovery plan. Two years ago, a catastrophic derailment of an oil tanker train took place in Valley City. This event resulted in massive explosions and fires, causing few mass causalities and a large number of injured people were hospitalized. Besides, a large part of the city needed to be evacuated and water contamination by oil leakage remained there for several months.

Our hospital received this unfortunate news at 7 a.m. remotely and we quickly had to start planning for its management at the Villa Health Hospital. Our hospital was initially understaffed with only a registered nurse (RN), an ED technologist, and a fresh nursing assistant. Despite many efforts, we certainly had limited services management possible because of inappropriate disaster recovery plan and its implementation. 

Determinants of Health, and the Cultural, Social, and Economic Barriers that Impact Safety, Health, and Disaster Recovery Efforts 

 The extent to which medical services can be utilized is influenced by cultural, social, and economic factors. The demography of people affected by disaster also influences the quality of care treatment they acquire along with the level of disaster recovery efforts conducted by healthcare providers and related workers.

Disaster-Related Cultural Factors

  Cultural disparities act as an obstacle in disaster recovery and management. The ongoing cultural customs and beliefs influence the affected individuals even in times of disaster. As some of the affected individuals with cultural backgrounds are hesitant to take foreign aid in disastrous events (ApplebyArnold et al., 2020). They may have distrust of healthcare systems and health professionals or the family structure of culturally diverse societies may pose challenges in immediate recovery from disasters.

For example, in some cultural families, males of the family are decision-makers in healthcare, and females of their family and healthcare staff must require consent from the patriarch or matriarch of the family. These factors hinder the immediate recovery after a detriment event in a community (Rahmani et al., 2022). In train derailment disasters, cultural factors like lack of trust and instead of seeking external assistance relying on traditional healing practices and norms were major obstacles in disaster recovery efforts and providing safety and health to affected individuals.

Disaster-Related Social Factors

Disaster recovery is affected by various social factors such as gender inequality, race and ethnicity, income, variation in age groups, and educational level. Gender inequalities are often seen in disasters as women are least prioritized for care treatments and in some societies, males are deemed as not requiring health facilities due to their being strong entities. People belonging to a particular race such as black people are served with prejudice during disasters. Their health needs are not considered as important as other ethnicities such as White people. People with low incomes who are unable to afford transportation have a high chance of remaining trapped in disastrous events (Crowley, 2020). The different age-group factor influences disaster recovery management as older people are already suffering from multiple morbidities, requiring particular health care needs; hence, have high chances of mortalities post-disaster.

Young children are also affected badly as a result of disasters and need not only physical healthcare treatments but also require emotional recovery as a result of traumatic events. People with higher levels of education are less dependent on environmental aid as they know how to get out of a disastrous situation (Polcarová & Pupíková, 2022). In Valley City, the White population accounts for the major part, almost 93%, which is why White people are considered more deserving for healthcare treatment. These racial and ethnic differences were a barrier in providing effective disaster recovery efforts to affected people. Furthermore, Valley City Shelter homes were limited in number and had no capacity of accommodating all the homeless individuals of this population. This posed a major obstacle to disaster recovery and the safety of individuals.

Disaster-Related Economic Factors

The economy of the affected area post-disaster is greatly affected and hence incurs negative effects on disaster recovery and its management. The low capital of a community results in poor provision of medical services and facilities. There is a shortage of housing and related resources as the disaster destroys pre-existing resources and further shortage of finances causes such situations. The community gets in dire need of foreign financial support to replenish the lost resources and improve the present living condition of affected individuals (Tasri et al., 2022).

The economy of Valley City is facing a financial crisis with peak bankruptcy which shows that the unstable economy was a major factor that hindered the provision of effective disaster recovery services, safety, and health. The lack of financial stability could not obtain the required resources to stabilize the aftermaths of the train derailment incident. Therefore, there was a need for external financial assistance and support to replenish the community and bring normalcy to lives and the surrounding environment.

Capella 4060 Assessment 3

These factors are interrelated with each other as the social factors are associated with the economic factors of health. When the economy of the community is poor, the social factors are affected e.g. education is affected as not many people in the community will afford it. Likewise, when the social factors are taken into consideration for a change, cultural factors also come along to bring overall changes as they cumulatively determine health. While implementing a disaster recovery plan, all these factors should be kept into consideration e.g. social factors such as gender, race, education, and age together with cultural factors should be addressed by providing respect and honor to culturally sensitive people. This will ultimately improve health recovery and enhance the economy as well. Therefore, a disaster recovery plan must have strategies to overcome social, cultural, and economic factors that hinder disaster recovery and economic growth. 

Proposed  Disaster Recovery Plan 

This disaster recovery plan is developed in light of all the factors addressed that impacted disaster recovery efforts in terms of healthcare and safety in Valley City after the train derailment incident. This plan involves the use of a strategic plan called the MAP-IT approach. This plan ensures the safety of affected individuals after a disaster. The MAP-IT is an acronym for: Mobilize, Assess, Plan, Implement, and Track. Now, I’ll briefly explain the MAP-IT methodology designed for Valley City.

Mobilize

In this first step, we need to gather hospital staff such as nurses and physicians as the hospital was understaffed in train derailment incidents which made it further difficult to manage the affected people. Moreover, some groups or teams of people who are eager to participate in making a disaster recovery plan must be welcomed. These can include non-profit organizations working for philanthropic causes e.g. American Red Cross which works for disaster management, healthcare administrative staff, and nursing staff. All these interdisciplinary teams can contribute to the development of an effective disaster recovery plan. After procuring the desired team, the division of labor is done and tasks are assigned.

Assessment 

After mobilizing the working team, the needs of Valley City will be assessed. For example, the affected individuals might be non-fluent in English comprehension and there could be a language barrier as some migrant workers in Valley City have limited English proficiency. For this purpose, there should be a multi-lingual team that can talk to affected individuals in a language they can understand. Furthermore, 204 residents of Valley City are elderly suffering from complex health conditions and 147 people are physically disabled and require lip reading or American sign language to communicate, it is imperative to involve sign language instructors or experts to facilitate such people in disastrous events.

The cultural needs of people should also be assessed and suitable moves should be taken. After assessing the financial needs of Valley City, financial support is requested from the neighboring communities and cities. The hospital requires an increased number of beds as the hospital had only 105 beds and the new ambulances as the old ambulances are in need of overhaul. Furthermore, the hospital infrastructure is old and requires renovation to facilitate the incoming of affected individuals.

Planning

After finding the needs of the Valley City & Valley City Regional Hospital and the estimation of available resources, planning of the recovery plan from the disaster will be done. In this planning, delegation of resources to the required areas will be done and priorities and goals will be set. These goals should be practical and realistic to be achieved.

Implement

In this step, the plan will be brought into action and the recovery from the disaster is initiated. This is the most crucial step as it will result in practical changes. In this step, effective communication is required to stay engaged with all the team members.  

Track

The last step of the MAP-IT plan is tracking the recovery from the disaster. Keen and intricate monitoring of recovery from disaster will be done and further improvements in the plan will be made according to the results. 

Lessened Health Disparities and Improved Access to Community Services in Disaster Recovery Plan 

The proposed disaster plan is made in such a way that it lessens the health disparities as every affected person from disaster is equal and deserves acquired treatment and improves their access to community resources. This is achieved when social justice and cultural sensitivity principles are implemented. Social justice is basically the provision of welfare and legal security which poses a population vulnerability to protect the assets of the affected people in disasters (Pollack, 2020). With the application of social justice, equitable distribution of resources is ensured with intricate consideration into improvement in existing policies of healthcare systems.

The guidelines followed by the healthcare systems that do not follow the principles of social justice are eliminated and new policies are obtained. This requires the interdisciplinary collaboration of various stakeholders such as healthcare administrators, senior healthcare professionals, etc. This will ensure that each determinant of health is taken into account and affected individuals are treated without any social discrimination. Ultimately, health disparities are reduced and people have improved access to community services.  

The affected persons with cultural sensitivities will be treated in such a way that their cultural beliefs are not devalued and nurses with bilingual expertise are allocated to such people so that the language barrier can be overcome. This requires culturally competent nursing staff and other healthcare professionals so that appropriate staff is assigned to culturally sensitive people (Lau & Rodgers, 2021). In traumatic events like disasters, there is an equal need for mental health services and emotional stability. This will be achieved by recruiting empathetic healthcare nursing staff so that proper care treatments are provided including both physical and emotional. This will ensure reduced health disparities along with improved access to community services.

Impact of Health and Governmental Policies on Disaster Recovery Plan

For effective recovery from disasters, several policies have been formulated by healthcare and governmental entities. These policies are important to direct healthcare systems and governmental bodies to prepare for disasters and work to bring effective recovery changes. The Disaster Recovery Reform Act (DRRA) was established on October 3, 2018, to promote disaster recovery by creating the recovery process from disaster a responsibility of the whole community and preparing the nation for disastrous events. It has three strategic goals:

  1. Building a culture of preparedness and readiness by promoting pre-disaster mitigation.
  1. Preparing the nation for catastrophic situations
  2. Diminish the complexity of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA, 2019)

The Stafford Act is another law that promotes disaster recovery that aims for disaster preparedness and mitigation assistance. It provides rulings on emergency operation centers, contributions for personnel and administrative expenses, and other disaster management strategies. It governs the U.S. government on how to respond to disasters (FEMA, 2021). These policies when implemented in the community for disaster preparation can manage disasters in an effective way which can reduce afflictions of community members. For example, in our disaster recovery plan, we are following the provision of disaster preparedness that will help us manage the post-catastrophic events systemically due to our prior planning.

Strategies to Overcome Communication Barriers in Recovery from Disasters

It is important to lessen the communication barriers during disaster recovery so that interprofessional collaboration is effectively maintained. These strategies help maintain communication among the professionals including hospital administrators, nurses, doctors, and pharmacists that are actively contributing to recovery from disasters.  The strategies for overcoming communication barriers are discussed ahead. Implementation of an agreed-upon common language and communication style can promote communication among interprofessional collaborators.

Education and training of interdisciplinary professionals to improve their communication ways, e.g. medical doctors who have negative thinking about other healthcare professionals may not communicate properly and attentively. Therefore, this requires the interprofessional team to have a shared vision to stay on the same grounds without neglecting the patients affected by the disaster.

Clarity of roles for the interprofessional team and respecting the roles of other health professionals overcomes the communication barrier as every health professional knows his duties and responsibilities. This will make everyone know what the other one is talking about and enhance communication collaboration (Nguyen et al., 2019). Another strategy to enhance communication is implementing closed-loop communication which ensures the message has been received. In this strategy, the healthcare interprofessional will send back a similar message to make the sender know that the information has been received and understood. 

Lastly, understanding and knowing the use of social media applications such as WhatsApp, Twitter, etc. can be used to stay connected remotely and inform each other about current updates during disaster recovery (Bhangu et al., 2022; Yeo et al., 2020). These communication strategies have positive implications of immediate and prompt recovery from disaster, equitable and timely distribution of health services, and fewer mortality rates. This will enhance the chances of bringing normalcy back to the community and stabilize the economy as well. 

Conclusion

To conclude, a disaster recovery plan in light of the train derailment accident has been discussed. We have covered the factors that impact the disaster recovery plan and considering these factors, we have created the disaster recovery plan based on the MAP-IT approach. This proposed disaster plan promotes the implementation of social justice and respect for cultural sensitivity to reduce health disparities and improve access to community services. Lastly, we discussed policies that improve the disaster recovery plan i.e. DRRA and the Stafford Act, and communication strategies to improve disaster recovery and management. Thank you. 

References

ApplebyArnold, S., Brockdorff, N., Jakovljev, I., & Zdravković, S. (2020). Disaster preparedness and cultural factors: A comparative study in romania and malta. Disasters, 45(3). https://doi.org/10.1111/disa.12433 

Bhangu, A., Notario, L., Pinto, R. L., Pannell, D., Thomas-Boaz, W., Freedman, C., Tien, H., Nathens, A. B., & da Luz, L. (2022). Closed loop communication in the trauma bay: Identifying opportunities for team performance improvement through a video review analysis. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43678-022-00295-z 

Crowley, J. (2020). Social vulnerability factors and reported post-disaster needs in the aftermath of hurricane florence. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 12.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13753-020-00315-5 

FEMA. (2019). Disaster Recovery Reform Act (DRRA) annual report. https://www.fema.gov/sites/default/files/2020-07/fema_DRRA-annual-report_2019.pdf 

FEMA. (2021, November 18). Stafford Act | FEMA.gov. https://www.fema.gov/disaster/stafford-act 

Lau, L. S., & Rodgers, G. (2021). Cultural competence in refugee service settings: A scoping review. Health Equity, 5(1), 124–134. https://doi.org/10.1089/heq.2020.0094 

Nguyen, J., Smith, L., Hunter, J., & Harnett, J. E. (2019). Conventional and complementary medicine health care practitioners’ perspectives on interprofessional communication: A qualitative rapid review. Medicina, 55(10), 650. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100650 

Capella 4060 Assessment 3

Polcarová, E., & Pupíková, J. (2022). Analysis of socially vulnerable communities and factors affecting their safety and resilience in disaster risk reduction. Sustainability, 14(18), 11380. https://doi.org/10.3390/su141811380 

Pollack, H. A. (2020). Disaster preparedness and social justice in a public health emergency. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law. https://doi.org/10.1215/03616878-8641457 

Rahmani, M., Muzwagi, A., & Pumariega, A. J. (2022). Cultural factors in disaster response among diverse children and youth around the world. Current Psychiatry Reports, 24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-022-01356-x 

Tasri, E. S., Karimi, K., & Muslim, I. (2022). The effect of economic variables on natural disasters and the impact of disasters on economic variables. Heliyon, 8(1), e08678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08678 

Yeo, J., Knox, C. C., & Hu, Q. (2020). Disaster recovery communication in the digital era: Social media and the 2016 southern louisiana flood. Risk Analysis. https://doi.org/10.1111/risa.13652 

Capella 4060 Assessment 3