EB003 Clinical Inquiry, Problem-Intervention-ComparisonOutcome-Time (PICOT), and Searching Databases
Phillip March 26, 2024 No Comments

EB003 Clinical Inquiry, Problem-Intervention-ComparisonOutcome-Time (PICOT), and Searching Databases

EB003 Clinical Inquiry, Problem-Intervention-ComparisonOutcome-Time (PICOT), and Searching Databases



NURS 6052 Essentials of Evidence-Based Practice

Prof. Name



The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant disruptions to social norms and practices globally, raising concerns about its impact on children’s mental health and posing challenges for pediatricians in providing effective care (Fitzpatrick, Carson, & Weisz, 2021). Lockdown measures have exposed children to stressful conditions, increasing their vulnerability to long-term mental health issues (AJN, 2021).

Clinical Issue

This paper examines the consequences of the pandemic on pediatric mental health and its implications for healthcare delivery among caregivers. Pediatric hospitals in various regions have reported a substantial increase in emergency department (ED) visits, highlighting the severity of the problem (Bartek et al., 2021).

How Pediatrics & Caregivers Are Affected

The COVID-19 pandemic and its containment measures have disrupted numerous aspects of life, including education and healthcare services, affecting children’s mental health (Fitzpatrick et al., 2021). Preliminary data indicate that these disruptions exacerbate stressors, leading to adverse mental health outcomes in children, parents, and caregivers. Reports suggest a decline in emotional and social well-being among children and adolescents, resulting in internalizing and externalizing problems.


Social isolation, school closures, and stay-at-home orders further contribute to stress among adolescents and children. Notably, approximately 35% of children who received mental health services through school programs are now deprived of such services due to closures (Fitzpatrick et al., 2021). Additionally, caregivers and parents experience deteriorating mental health due to increased childcare responsibilities, financial strain, unemployment, and loss of health insurance coverage.

How To Improve Access to Mental Health During the Pandemic

The strain on pediatric mental health resources during the pandemic underscores the necessity for enhanced accessibility and specialized care. While emergency departments have played a critical role in addressing pediatric mental health needs, advocating for funding to establish dedicated mental health care facilities and providing training to primary care pediatricians are crucial steps (Gupta et al., 2021). Additionally, governmental prioritization of community awareness and preventive measures is essential.

NURS 6052 Assessment 3 EB003 Clinical Inquiry, Problem-Intervention-ComparisonOutcome-Time (PICOT), and Searching Databases

PICOT Question

In a general population, how has pediatric patients’ mental health, compared to other diseases, been affected since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic?

Formulating the PICOT Question

A well-constructed PICOT question is essential for identifying and addressing issues in pediatric nursing practice through evidence-based approaches. The components of PICOT—population, intervention, comparison, outcome, and time frame—ensure clarity and guide research efforts.


  • Population (P): Pediatric patients presenting in the ED during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Intervention (I): Evidence-based interventions aimed at addressing mental health effects, including counseling and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).
  • Comparison (C): Alternative intervention of school-based primary care.
  • Outcome (O): Impact of the new intervention on reducing ED visits, assessed over a six-month period.

Research Databases

Utilizing peer-reviewed articles and databases such as Education Source, MEDLINE, ProQuest, and OVID is crucial for ensuring the validity and reliability of data in nursing research. Combining these resources with the PICOT framework facilitates the development of evidence-based practices for practical implementation.

Levels of Evidence and Strengths

Level 1 research, involving systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials, offers robust evidence for informing clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials help evaluate the effectiveness of interventions, while systematic reviews aid in identifying and evaluating relevant studies on specific clinical issues.


Fitzpatrick, O., Carson, A., & Weisz, J. R. (2021). Using mixed methods to identify the primary mental health problems and needs of children, adolescents, and their caregivers during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 52(6), 1082-1093.

AJN. (2021, September). The Psychological Toll of COVID-19 on Children: AJN The American Journal of Nursing. American Journal of Nursing.

Bartek, N., Peck, J. L., Garzon, D., & VanCleve, S. (2021). Addressing the clinical impact of COVID-19 on pediatric mental health. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 35(4), 377-386.

Gupta, S., Schreiber, M., McGuire, T., & Newton, C. (2021). Addressing pediatric mental health during COVID-19 and other disasters: A national tabletop exercise. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 1-4.

NURS 6052 Assessment 3 EB003 Clinical Inquiry, Problem-Intervention-ComparisonOutcome-Time (PICOT), and Searching Databases