NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 3
Phillip September 15, 2023 No Comments

NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 3: PICO (T) Questions and an Evidence-Based Approach

NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 3: PICO (T) Questions and an Evidence-Based Approach

Student Name

Capella University

NURS FPX4030 Making Evidence-Based Decisions



PICO (T) Questions and an Evidence-Based Approach

In the context of healthcare research, the PICO (T) method serves as a framework for constructing and addressing clinical inquiries. PICO (T) represents Patient/Population/Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, and Time if relevant. It represents a system of defining the key components of a potential study or investigation. The “P” refers to the patient or population under consideration, while the “I” represents the intervention being assessed. The “C” involves the comparison of interventions or controls, and the “O” points to the desired outcomes. Finally, “T”, if relevant, pertains to the time frame over which the intervention’s effects are analyzed. This framework serves as a strategy for formulating research questions and guiding the search for clinical evidence, promoting evidence-based healthcare practices.

Practice Issue of Type II Diabetes Management

The focus of the investigation pertains to the management of Type 2 diabetes—a multifaceted condition that significantly affects a substantial number of individuals worldwide, consequently exerting notable strain on both their quality of life and healthcare systems (Westman, 2021). To effectively delve into this particular issue, the utilization of a PICO (T) approach proves advantageous. This systematic framework serves to streamline the research process by honing in on pivotal facets of the concern. A PICO (T)-formatted research question could be: “In adults with Type 2 diabetes (P), does a lifestyle intervention program focusing on dietary changes and physical activity (I), compared to standard care (C), lead to notable improvements in hemoglobin A1C levels (O) over a 12-month period (T)?”.

The reason this issue benefits from a PICO (T) approach is that it helps clarify and focus the research question. Breaking the problem down into these components assists in developing a more targeted research strategy, helping us to locate the most relevant evidence in an efficient manner. This refined focus can result in high-quality research that is more likely to lead to improved patient outcomes and more effective healthcare policies and procedures.

Identification of Sources of Evidence

Various sources can provide valuable insights for addressing the PICO (T) question regarding the influence of lifestyle interventions on the levels of hemoglobin A1C in individuals diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Esteemed publications like Diabetes Care, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, and the Journal of the American Medical Association frequently release current, peer-reviewed studies regarding interventions for Type 2 diabetes. Authoritative governmental websites such as the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and Clinical Trials furnish valuable data on ongoing and successful studies related to lifestyle management in diabetes. Moreover, databases such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, and CINAHL offer an abundance of pertinent studies for our inquiry.

To gauge the credibility and suitability of sources, the CRAAP test, which assesses Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose, proves to be an invaluable resource. This ensures that the sources utilized are current, pertinent, authoritative, accurate, and aligned with the intended purpose. This evaluation method allows researchers to identify trustworthy information that is up-to-date, pertinent to their research topic, backed by reliable authors and reputable journals, supported by scholarly evidence and has a clear and relevant purpose for the intended audience (Lowe et al., 2021). Combining the CRAAP test with the PICO question presents a beneficial strategy for healthcare professionals, ensuring credible and meaningful information is leading to improved patient outcomes and enhanced quality of care.

Findings from the Relevant Sources

Research into the management of Type 2 diabetes has primarily concentrated on lifestyle interventions as a pivotal approach. An authoritative source in this regard is the American Diabetic Association (2020), which provides valuable insights into programs centered around lifestyle changes targeting Type 2 diabetes. The article underscores the significance of structured interventions promoting a modest weight loss of around 5%, yielding notable enhancements in blood glucose levels among adults with Type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, it strongly advocates for increased physical activity to bolster glycemic control and overall well-being for this demographic. Another pertinent contribution comes from Zou et al. (2020), who furnish evidence supporting the enduring advantages of lifestyle interventions for adults grappling with Type 2 diabetes.

The research conducted utilizes predictive models derived from data acquired from the Da Qing Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) and Diabetes Study. The groups that underwent interventions involving adjustments to their diet, exercise routines, and standard care experienced a significant reduction in cardiovascular risks over a period of thirty years. Although the primary focus of this study is on cardiovascular outcomes, it indirectly suggests that the favorable impact of lifestyle interventions on cardiovascular risks could extend to the reduction of hemoglobin A1C levels. In related work, Yang et al. (2023) provide a comprehensive assessment of various randomized controlled trials that concentrate on lifestyle interventions. The findings underscore that interventions involving dietary modifications and physical activity lead to a notable decrease in HbA1C levels among overweight and obese individuals dealing with Type 2 diabetes, across various ethnic groups.

Decision-Making on PICO Question Using the Findings

The findings from the chosen sources are highly relevant when making decisions related to your PICO(T) question. The information provided by the American Diabetic Association (2020) serves as a comprehensive guideline, outlining the significance and functionality of lifestyle interventions in treating type 2 diabetes. This underlines the importance of the ‘Intervention’ component of our PICO(T) question and validates your choice of intervention. Investigations like Zou et al. (2021) and Yang et al. (2023) underscore the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on long-term diabetes management and lowering HbA1C levels. The most relevant finding, indicating the potential for positive outcomes, comes from the congruence among sources regarding the benefit of lifestyle interventions. Especially backed by the critical review of randomized controlled trials, it can be inferred that lifestyle modifications are indeed impactful in managing type 2 diabetes outcomes, underscoring the utility of your PICO(T) question focusing on dietary changes and physical activity. 


In conclusion, the PICO (T) framework serves as a strategy vital for formulating research questions and directing an evidence-based approach to healthcare issues. This method enables the precise definition of patient problems, intervention, comparison, and outcomes, which in turn facilitates efficient literature search and application of relevant information. Utilizing evidence-based practice, such as PICO (T), helps translate research findings into meaningful clinical practices, leading to improved patient outcomes and healthcare efficiency. It underscores the importance of selecting credible sources, interpreting findings, and applying these to clinical decision-making.


American Diabetes Association. (2020). Standards of medical care in diabetes-2020 abridged for primary care providers. Clinical Diabetes, 38(1), 10–38.

Lowe, M. S., Macy, K. V., Murphy, E., & Kani, J. (2021). Questioning Craap. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 21(3).

NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 3: PICO (T) Questions and an Evidence-Based Approach

Westman, E. C. (2021). Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A pathophysiologic perspective. Frontiers in Nutrition8. 

Yang, J., Xia, Y., Sun, Y., Guo, Y., Shi, Z., do Vale Moreira, N. C., Zuo, H., & Hussain, A. (2023). Effect of lifestyle intervention on HbA1c levels in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes across ethnicities: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice,110662.

NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 3: PICO (T) Questions and an Evidence-Based Approach

Zou, X., Zhou, X., Zhu, Z., Ji, L., Zhang, H., Lascar, N.,Chiasson, J. L. (2020). Development of models to predict 10-30-year cardiovascular disease risk using the Da Qing ImpairedGlucose Tolerance and Diabetes Study. Journal of Diabetes, 13(1), 52-66.