PA006 Global Healthcare Issues
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PA006 Global Healthcare Issues

PA006 Global Healthcare Issues

Name

 University

NURS 6050 Policy and Advocacy for Improving Population Health

Prof. Name

Date

Global Healthcare Issue – Obesity

Description

The epidemic of obesity has escalated into a national health crisis with far-reaching global implications. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2021), as of 2016, approximately 1.9 billion individuals worldwide were overweight. Obesity, characterized by an excessive accumulation of fat, imposes a significant burden not only on individuals but also on healthcare systems, thus impacting global economic productivity. This burden is particularly pronounced in low- and middle-income countries, underscoring the imperative for comprehensive global solutions (Caballero, 2019).

Country United States

Policy Description

In the United States, efforts to combat childhood obesity are channeled through targeted policies such as the “Let’s Move!” initiative, launched by Michelle Obama in 2010. This initiative advocates for healthier lifestyles with an emphasis on increased physical activity and improved nutrition (Bradwisch et al., 2020). Additionally, the “Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010” establishes nutritional standards for school meals administered by the USDA. The CDC’s “Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD)” project provides funding for community-based interventions (Bradwisch et al., 2020).

Strengths and Weaknesses

The strengths of US policies lie in their holistic approach to addressing childhood obesity, establishment of nutritional standards for school meals, and provision of funding for community-based interventions. However, weaknesses such as their voluntary nature and implementation challenges exist.

Country Canada

Policy Description

Canada adopts a comprehensive approach spanning the lifespan to address obesity. Policies such as the “Sugary Drink Tax,” “Fast Food Restaurant Act,” and “Marketing of Unhealthy Foods to Children Act” aim to deter unhealthy consumption while promoting healthier alternatives (Kao et al., 2020).

Strengths and Weaknesses

Canadian policies leverage economic incentives to discourage unhealthy consumption and regulate the density and location of fast-food establishments. Nevertheless, weaknesses such as regressive taxation and difficulties in defining and monitoring effectiveness persist.

Impact of Social Determinants of Health

Social determinants of health significantly contribute to obesity rates in both countries. Factors such as educational attainment and income inequality increase the risk of obesity, underscoring the need for targeted interventions (Golden, 2021; CDC, 2023).

Impact on Local Health Organizations and Policies

Global health issues like obesity influence resource allocation and service delivery in local health organizations. While the US prioritizes primary prevention and grapples with resource constraints, Canada adopts a holistic approach emphasizing prevention and accessibility (Feng & Martin, 2020; Lytvyak et al., 2022).

Impact on Global Population

Policies addressing obesity in Canada have the potential to positively impact the global population. Successful strategies can serve as models for other nations, and sharing knowledge can contribute to global advancements in understanding and combating obesity (Ríos-Reyna et al., 2022).

Impact on the Role of Nurses as Advocates

Health policies directly shape the role of nurses as advocates. While US policies empower nurses to promote healthy behaviors, Canadian policies allow for advocacy for systemic interventions and public health initiatives (Chang et al., 2021).

Conclusion

Addressing obesity necessitates comprehensive strategies that account for social determinants of health and the unique contexts of each country. Collaborative efforts, knowledge sharing, and ongoing evaluation are vital for effectively addressing this global health issue.

References

Berry, E. M. (2020). The Obesity Pandemic-Whose Responsibility? No Blame, No Shame, Not More of the Same. Frontiers in nutrition, 7, 2. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.00002

Bradwisch, S. A., Smith, E. M., Mooney, C., & Scaccia, D. (2020). Obesity in children and adolescents: An overview. Nursing, 50(11), 60–66. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NURSE.0000718908.20119.01

Caballero, B. (2019). Humans against Obesity: Who Will Win? Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), 10(suppl_1), S4–S9. https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmy055

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Policy Resources. https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpao/divisioninformation/policy/index.htm

Chang, W. P., Wang, C. H., & Lin, Y. K. (2021). Influence of Obesity on Heart Rate Variability in Nurses with Age and Shift Type as Moderators. BioMed research international, 2021, 8119929. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8119929

Di Cesare, M., Sorić, M., Bovet, P., Miranda, J. J., Bhutta, Z., Stevens, G. A., Laxmaiah, A., Kengne, A. P., & Bentham, J. (2019). The epidemiological burden of obesity in childhood: a worldwide epidemic requiring urgent action. BMC medicine, 17(1), 212. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1449-8

Feng, W., & Martin, E. G. (2020). Fighting obesity at the local level? An analysis of predictors of local health departments’ policy involvement. Preventive medicine, 133, 106006. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.106006

NURS 6050 Assessment 6 PA006 Global Healthcare Issues

Golden, A. (2021). Obesity’s Impact. The Nursing clinics of North America, 56(4), xiii–xiv. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cnur.2021.08.004

Javed, Z., Valero-Elizondo, J., Maqsood, M. H., Mahajan, S., Taha, M. B., Patel, K. V., Sharma, G., Hagan, K., Blaha, M. J., Blankstein, R., Mossialos, E., Virani, S. S., CainzosAchirica, M., & Nasir, K. (2022). Social determinants of health and obesity: Findings from a national study of US adults. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 30(2), 491–502. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.23336

Kao, K. E., Jones, A. C., Ohinmaa, A., & Paulden, M. (2020). The health and financial impacts of a sugary drink tax across different income groups in Canada. Economics & Human Biology, 38, 100869. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X19302746

Lytvyak, E., Straube, S., Modi, R., & Lee, K. K. (2022). Trends in obesity across Canada from 2005 to 2018: a consecutive cross-sectional population-based study. CMAJ open, 10(2), E439–E449. https://doi.org/10.9778/cmajo.20210205

Ríos-Reyna, C., Díaz-Ramírez, G., Castillo-Ruíz, O., Pardo-Buitimea, N. Y., & Alemán-Castillo, S. E. (2022). Políticas y estrategias para combatir la obesidad en Latinoamérica [Policies and strategies to combat obesity in Latin America]. Revista medica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, 60(6), 666–674.

Safaei, M., Sundararajan, E. A., Driss, M., Boulila, W., & Shapi’i, A. (2021). A systematic literature review on obesity: Understanding the causes & consequences of obesity and reviewing various machine learning approaches used to predict obesity. Computers in biology and medicine, 136, 104754. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104754

NURS 6050 Assessment 6 PA006 Global Healthcare Issues

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