PSY FPX 6015 Assessment 3 Adolescent Case Intervention Analysis
Phillip April 16, 2024 No Comments

PSY FPX 6015 Assessment 3 Adolescent Case Intervention Analysis

PSY FPX 6015 Assessment 3 Adolescent Case Intervention Analysis

Name

Capella University

PSY FPX 6015 Lifespan Development

Prof. Name

Date

Adolescent Case Intervention Analysis: Case Study of Jasmine

Jasmine is a 17-year-old Chinese American who moved from China to the United States two years ago. She lives in Oregon and attends public school and is the youngest in the family, the newcomer in the classroom, and having trouble with the English language. She is not just the only minority in the classroom but also gets picked on often by her classmates. Therefore, her academic achievements suffer while establishing positive relationships with her peers. The leader of her classroom often teases Jasmine, but when he is separated from the other kids, he is kinder to her.

Jasmine is often sent to the resource room for extra help due to the frustration and feeling lost in the classroom. Jasmine is having depressive feelings and often keeps these feelings to herself. She is worried that her parents will not understand. Jasmine also is having thoughts of wishing that she is not alive. She believes she is the only Chinese-American of all the people she knows. This is not easy because she must follow her parents’ religious traditions. The children around her stare and call her names on social media.

Development

Psychological and sociological professionals use an effective prism for lifespan development in which the development and growth of an individual can be explored adequately. At the time of conception, the child is expected to be a citizen that is both obedient and loyal and contributes to society through their quality of work and continuous learning (Broderick & Belwitt, 2020). The Theory of Lifespan Development provides an opportunity that monitors and interprets the patterns of development, education, socialization, and growth and any way the patterns can be improved.

There are many aspects of the lifespan development of a human that is confusing or not explored. One of the most controversial aspects of human development in adolescence is that it undergoes profound physiological and emotional changes. Success in life management as a young adult will be possible if there is effective self-regulation that is intentional. Unfortunately, adolescents fail if they cannot adjust to any of the changing conditions of their social performance.

Psychological Theories Related to Case

Erik Erikson’s 8 Stages of Development

Many theories relate to Jasmine’s case study, but a few are essential. The first is Jasmine’s age; it strictly correlates to how she is currently feeling and Erik Erikson’s 8 Stages of Development— it is common for adolescents her age to be dealing with identity- and role confusion. Another theory relatable to this case study is the Cultural-Historical Psychology viewpoint (Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues, & Educational Publishing Foundation, 2000).

The 8 Stages Theory of Psychological Development groups individuals by age to determine the development stage of the individual. The “adolescent” stage, the stage Jasmine fits, is between 12 to 18 years old (J.J. Thompson, 2021). The fundamental conflict in the adolescent stage is Identity vs. Role Confusion (J.J. Thompson, 2021). Jasmine is supposed to achieve a sense of identity in either occupation, sex roles, politics, or religion. The significant event in her development is peer relationships, and Jasmine’s peer relationships are negative (Pond, 2017).

Cultural Psychology

The second theoretical concept is Cultural Psychology, developed in the 1920s by Lev Vygotsky and then further developed by his students (Wagoner et al., 2014). It focused on aspects of culture that carry on through generations. Cultural Psychology focuses on how local culture shapes psychological processes (Wagoner et al., 2014). Culture shapes people, and people also shape their culture. In this instance, Jasmine believes that she does not fit in because of the cultural beliefs those around her hold. The biases make her feel different or like she does not fit in. The cultural theory also explains her depressive symptoms (Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues, & Educational Publishing Foundation, 2000).

Presenting Challenges

The early adolescent stages have different features which differ from the other aspects of adolescent lifespan development. In early adolescence, an individual will question their values and perceptions. In early adolescence, the fundamental conflict between affliction and abandonment is that an adolescent entering this stage of life will be preoccupied with wanting to be liked and worry about being disliked by their peers. This conflict also occurs when social and identity disorganization is apparent. Adolescents seek to be released from the “internalized parent,” or conventions, principles, and values that their parents dictate. In the interim, the adolescent may lack experience in self-regulation and motivation to help them accomplish their goals due to the poor fit between their psychosocial needs and the resources provided by the school environment (Broderick & Belwitt, 2020).

Primary Issues

Jasmine has had many issues she has faced since the time he has lived here and one major issue is her new environment and the lack of independent self-regulation. Numerous elements construct self-regulation and are complex, implying that the individual will have enough capacity to set and achieve their goals (Broderick & Belwitt, 2020). There is an importance to self-regulation that is obvious in which only adolescents that have high levels of independent self-regulation will establish. Maintaining productive relationships that include many levels of social and cultural contexts in which there is growth. One problem to poor self-regulation is even further complicated when there is a lack of peer ties especially, when peer relationships provide the essential context for the adolescents’’ identity development (Broderick & Belwitt, 2020).

Finally, the ethnicity plays a major role in Jasmine’s identity and development at this age. In this multicultural world Jasmine experiences the conflicts between the natural striving for autonomy and the cultural environment in which she belongs. As stated by Ngai et al. (2018), Chinese Americans will remain compliant with their parent’s attitudes at all stages of life, which may preclude her from engaging in and interacting mutually with her peers. Now she is in a state of diffusion characterized by her low levels of autonomy, identity, and self-esteem. The lack of effective peer ties will further impede on her development of independent self-regulation. All of these factors have created a situation for Jasmine, who is beginning to feel depressed (Broderick & Belwitt, 2020).

Learning Evaluation and Intervention

Donovan et al. (2013) examined whether or not personal identity, confusion, and ethnic identity moderate or mediate the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. The researchers examined eight ethnic-generational groups. Donovan et al. (2013) used a sample of 9665 students. The researchers conducted a survey. Across all of the groups, perceived discrimination and ethnic identity levels varied. Donovan et al. (2013) found that identity confusion and ethnic identity did not moderate the perceived discrimination. However, identity confusion was a partial mediator for immigrant and non-immigrant Hispanic and white European Americans (Donovan et al., 2013).

The objective of Demir et al. (2010) was to investigate the relationship between a sense of identity and depression in a group of adolescents. There were 31 depressed adolescent participants and 31 control participants. The participants were evaluated using the sense of Identity Assessment Form and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The depressed participants got a reevaluation after the eighth week of antidepressant treatment. Higher rates of sense of identity compared to the baseline were shown in the depressed adolescents versus the

control group. Demir et al. (2010) concluded significant positive relationships between sense of identity, depression, and anxiety scores. The identity scale assessment scores change could accurately predict the remitters and non-remitters. These are significant findings as they indicate an association between depression and identity-confused adolescents (Demir et al., 2010).

PSY FPX 6015 Assessment 3 Adolescent Case Intervention Analysis

Zisk et al. (2019) used a study to determine the benefit of parent-teen communication for depressed and suicidal adolescents. A total of 253 adolescents were screened for eligibility, and used a total sample of 129 depressed or suicidal adolescents ages 12-18 who were randomized to attachment-based family therapy or family-enhanced nondirective support therapy. Before the treatment, parents and adolescents were recorded during a 10-minute conflict discussion. Half of the participants were assigned to attachment-based family therapy (ABFT) and the other half family- enhanced non-directive support therapy (FE-NST). ABFT is a 16-week treatment that supports conflicts between an adolescent and their caregiver that could be causing turmoil for the adolescent. ABFT consists of 5 tasks where the individual and the parent participate in therapy conjointly, followed by individual sessions. FE-NST is a treatment adapted from supportive relationship treatment manual, it is individual therapy.

During this treatment a therapist reflectively listens, empathizes and offers statements that may bring a new perspective to the adolescent. Adolescents who had uncooperative communication with their parents during a 10-minute conflict discussion or whom have difficulties maintaining cooperative communications with their guardians, showed more significant reductions in symptoms of depression and are more likely to benefit from these treatments. Adolescents from traditionally underserved families also showed more significant reductions during these treatments. The results of Zisk et al. (2019) represent the benefit of family-supportive therapy, which can be specifically helpful in underserved families (Zisk et al., 2019).

PSY FPX 6015 Assessment 3 Adolescent Case Intervention Analysis

Yang et al. (2020) compared dialectical behavioral group therapy (DBT) to supportive group therapy skills to lower suicidal risks and depressive symptoms. Yang et al. (2020) used 97 suicidal participants randomized to either a DBT group skills training or a supportive group therapy. A total of 244 students were interviewed; of those 244, 189 were diagnosed with severe depression. 97 of the students agreed to participate in the study. DBT included treatment modules: phone-coaching, acceptance-oriented skills, mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotional regulation, and interpersonal effectiveness.

In contrast, supportive group therapy included two modules that aim to improve interpersonal effectiveness and emotional regulation skills. After the treatment, postintervention treatments were given to the participants. The students were asked to indicate on a scale from 1-10 if the intervention was helpful. Overall, the measures of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and general psychopathology significantly decreased in both treatment groups. The researchers did a 6-month follow-up on the participants. At a 6-month follow-up, the patients who participated in DBT maintained the effects of intervention more than the supportive group. This study informs that there are multiple options of group therapy available that effectively deal with depressive symptoms (Yang et al., 2020).

These results indicate the correct alternative solutions to the case study of Jasmine. According to Zisk et al. (2019) family therapy will significantly decrease symptoms of depression for an individual battling conflicts with family members. To be more specific, Jasmine is to follow her family’s religious traditions and this makes her feel different from others, if she were able to speak to her parents about these issues, her identity conflict could dissipate. This would be the best option for this adolescent though Yang et al. (2020) poses a second option if the parents do not want to participate.

Jasmine’s Case Study in Relation to Psychedelic Therapy

As stated in the last paper it is difficult to relate psychedelic therapy to children or young adults depending on their age. This case study indicates that Jasmine is depressed. I created this case study so Jasmine would be 17 years old, that could be acceptable for psychedelic therapy. Given that psychedelic therapy is still a new field there is no age limit, however at younger ages it is difficult to say where it may not be acceptable to use psychedelic therapy. In this case, I will consider Jasmine to be of age as she is a young adult.

The most common theme throughout the psilocybin for depression research is that after the administration of psilocybin, many patients reduce depressive symptoms. Davis et al. (2021), whose goal was to find the effects of psilocybin on major depressive disorder, came to this conclusion. Other studies that reported the same finding were Carhart-Harris et al. (2017) and Carhart-Harris et al. (2021) after administering psilocybin to patients with treatment-resistant depression and a comparative study of psilocybin and escitalopram. Davis et al. (2021) and Carhart-Harris et al. (2021) also found that psilocybin had an immediate and sustained antidepressant effect.

PSY FPX 6015 Assessment 3 Adolescent Case Intervention Analysis

Another approach is the theme of connectedness throughout psychedelic studies for example, Forstmann, et al. (2020) hypothesized that transformative experience and social connectedness mediate the mood-enhancing effects of psilocybin and other psychedelics in a naturalistic setting. This study was significant because it shows that using psilocybin and other psychedelics in a naturalistic setting is associated with experiences of personal transformation, increased feelings of social connectedness, and increased positive mood.

Using psilocybin as an intervention for Jasmine’s feelings of depression and low levels of connectedness would be concerning my specialization. Psilocybin is a powerful tool to be used along with therapy for effective and long-lasting outcomes for a patient.

Conclusion

The theories provided for lifespan development analyze and interpret the quality of human psychological and social functioning. Jasmine has faced many issues and could continue to face the lack of intentional self-regulation. Individuals need to learn self-regulation in early adolescence to thrive. There are levels of social and cultural contexts that only self-regulators can successfully navigate as they grow. The interventions mentioned in this paper will allow Jasmine to facilitate integration with the new cultural environment that she now belongs to, which could improve her self-esteem and decrease her levels of depression.

References

Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2020). The Life Span: Human Development for Helping Professionals. Pearson Education, Inc.

Carhart-Harris, R. L., Roseman, L., Bolstridge, M., Demetriou, L., Pannekoek, J. N., Wall, M. B., Tanner, M., Kaelen, M., McGonigle, J., Murphy, K., Leech, R., Curran, H. V., & Nutt, D. J. (2017). Psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression: FMRI-measured brain mechanisms. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 13187-11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-13282-7

Davis, A. K., Barrett, F. S., May, D. G., Cosimano, M. P., Sepeda, N. D., Johnson, M. W., Finan, P. H., & Griffiths, R. R. (2021). Effects of psilocybin-assisted therapy on major depressive disorder: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry (Chicago, Ill.), 78(5), 481-489. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.3285

Demir, B., Kaynak-Demir, H., & Sönmez, E. I. (2010). Sense of identity and depression in adolescents. Turkish Journal of Pediatrics, 52(1), 68-72.

PSY FPX 6015 Assessment 3 Adolescent Case Intervention Analysis

Donovan, R. A., Huynh, Q., Park, I. J. K., Kim, S. Y., Lee, R. M., & Robertson, E. (2013). Relationships among identity, perceived discrimination, and depressive symptoms in eight ethnic-generational groups. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(4), 397-414. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.21936

Thompson, M. J. J. (2021). Piaget’s stages of cognitive development and Erikson’s stages of Psychosocial Development. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 55–59. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003083139-10

Ngai, S. S., Xie, L., Ng, Y., & Ngai, H. (2018). The effects of parenting behavior on prosocial behavior of Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. Children and Youth Services Review, 87, 154-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.02.030

Pond, J. (2017). Treading water: Considering adolescent characters in moratorium. Children’s Literature in Education, 49(2), 87-100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10583-017-9312-z

Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues, & Educational Publishing Foundation. (2000). Cultural diversity & ethnic minority psychology. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology.

Wagoner, B., Chaudhary, N., & Hviid, P. (2014). Cultural psychology and its future: Complementarity in a new key. Information Age Publishing.

Yang X., Liu D., Wang Y., Chen Y., Chen W., Yang C., Zhang P., Ding S., Zhang X. (2020). Effectiveness of Zhong-Yong thinking based dialectical behavior therapy group skills training versus supportive group therapy for lowering suicidal risks in Chinese young adults: A randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow-up. Brain Behav., 10(6), e01621. doi: 10.1002/brb3.1621.

Zisk A., Abbott C. H., Bounoua N., Diamond G. S., Kobak R. (2019). Parent-teen communication predicts treatment benefit for depressed and suicidal adolescents. J Consult Clin Psychol, 87(12), 1137-1148. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000457.