PSY FPX 6730 Assessment 4 Theoretical Foundations
Phillip April 15, 2024 No Comments

PSY FPX 6730 Assessment 4 Theoretical Foundations

PSY FPX 6730 Assessment 4 Theoretical Foundations

Name

Capella University

PSY FPX 6730 Consultation Psychology

Prof. Name

Date

Introduction

The owner of Company A Tech Solutions has requested the assistance of a consultant to help introduce a new organizational structure and train staff to ensure the new and old teams can coordinate effectively. There have been a few changes at Company A Tech Solutions over the past couple of months. The company expanded from being a purely online business to also operating from a physical store. Additionally, they added a division to their team to assist with customer work. After these additions, the owner noticed that there was internal conflict between the two teams, causing miscommunications and conflict within the organization. Due to a lack of proper communication within the organization, management was not informed about these issues with staff members. Employee morale and teamwork have also been mentioned as areas that need to be strengthened.

Case Study

During the transition between the distinction between the online help team and the in-person help team during the recent massive change that the organization underwent, many of the staff members are unsure of their exact responsibilities, especially because most of them will be working within the same space and operations managers are taking on additional responsibilities. Employees of the organization did not accept the change, according to the owner of the organization. Nevertheless, Company A Tech Solutions saw an increase in customers since the store opened, resulting in a profit of about 15% within the first month, compared to the median income the organization recorded before the store opened.

In light of the increasing number of internal complaints, the company’s owner is concerned that if the customers feel that there is hostile tension among the employees, it may make the company appear hostile to getting tech repairs. Due to the company’s small size, all final decisions are made by the owner, to whom all employees report. This person requested help from a consultant and was eager to implement positive changes as soon as possible, so they contacted a consultant. By doing so, we can gain a greater understanding of both the current structure of the organization and the desired outcome for their communication.

PSY FPX 6730 Assessment 4 Theoretical Foundations

Despite the owner’s vast knowledge of the organization’s daily functions, they have delegated management of the divisions to two managers, one for online support and another for in-person support. In their role as managers, they work directly with their teams to ensure smooth daily operations and that all customers are properly looked after. Since the owner has brought in a consultant to help the managers and staff focus in a better direction, they may be hesitant to share information if they feel that it could make them appear to be failing at their jobs. The support team can also give insight to the consultant if management is reluctant to share information as they are already feeling unsupported In cases where employees already feel unsupported or have no guidance, we may be able to provide helpful advice.

Consulting: Theories and Their Basis in Evidence

As a consultant, using behavioral theories is essential to ensure success because the behavioral model provides clear guidelines and a problem-solving approach to setting, attaining, and evaluating objectives (Davis et al., 2015). In the case of Company A Tech Solutions, the prominent use of utilizing behavioral theories is necessary, as will help, not only the consultant, but the staff of Company A have a better understanding of which behavioral changes must occur to benefit the organization. According to Davis et al, (2015), “the application of theory is advocated as an integral step in intervention design and evaluation” (p. 323).

Using behavior change techniques within interventions can be complicated, but theoretical bases for doing so indicate the importance of understanding behavioral interventions (Davis et al., 2015). There is a tendency in the public sector to emphasize individual and interpersonal variables more than the broader social and environmental factors to create change as well as provide interventions (Davis et al., 2015). As a result, behavior theories are crucial for the proper implementation of change in the organization that will enable better interpersonal communication and a stronger organizational structure.

PSY FPX 6730 Assessment 4 Theoretical Foundations

The first theory that will assist us with the Company A Tech Solutions case, is that of the Gestalt Theory. A focus on an individual’s experience is central to Gestalt theory, which supports change efforts within an organization (Nevis, 2010). Gestalt theory, which originated in the 1920s, was influenced by modern thinking and introduced based on the field theory with the idea that each individual’s experience stems from their interaction with their environment (Chidiac, 2013). To address perception, Chidiac (2013) explains that Gestalt Psychotherapy Theory offers a perspective “that could advance thinking and practice concerning such new and emerging aspects” (p. 458). By allowing employees to share their experiences with the organization, Gestalt Theory will assist the consultant, as well as management, in building a better and stronger organizational structure for Company A Tech Solutions.

PSY FPX 6730 Assessment 4 Theoretical Foundations

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has been seen as a model of psychopathology based on an organized set of beliefs, which, when activated, can affect cognitive processes including memory and attention (Hyland & Bodusek, 2012, p. 107). As per an article written by Hyland and Bodusek (2012), the purpose of using CBT is to identify a core belief system that explains various assumptions and attitudes a person holds, which allows therapists to direct the individual to processes that can assist in positive change and help the client alter their beliefs to modify the behavior.

With CBT, patients or clients will be provided with exercises that allow them to learn coping skills, which in turn will allow them to change their behaviors, emotions, and thoughts (Hyland & Bodusek, 2012). By helping Company A Tech Solutions to fix bad habits within the organization and permit them to learn more effective practices using CBT, the consultant will be able to help the organization, as well as management, improve.

According to Kilburg and Donohue (2011), many consultants adopt and utilize a or more core concepts from Theoretical Foundations as part of their framework for understanding which practices are most effective when working with organizations and their needs since theoretical foundations of consultation establish fundamental building blocks within leadership. In contrast to client-centered therapy and psychoanalysis, Gestalt and CBT share similar concepts. The concept is that effective leadership is derived from the personal characteristics and capabilities of the leaders, followers, and other members within an organization by allowing previous behaviors to guide and identify solutions to current problems (Kilburg & Donohue, 2011).

PSY FPX 6730 Assessment 4 Theoretical Foundations

Beidas et al., (2013) state that behavioral therapists “reject the idea of the unconscious, instead of focusing on changing the problem behavior instead of trying to determine what the past events triggered”. The importance of Beidas et al., (2013) article is to signify that patients, or even clients, are helped to develop coping skills, whereby they can learn to change their thinking, problematic emotions, and behavior. Unlike other psychotherapies, behavior and cognitive therapy are directive, while behavior therapists do not discuss situations to determine the problem, but rather use behavior assessment methods to correct the behavior and may include environmental factors (Beidas, et al., 2013).

While many people consider Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Gestalt Therapy to be very similar psychological approaches, there are some important differences between the techniques used to help clients achieve their goals in both approaches (Kellogg, 2004). Gestalt is a free-flowing therapeutic approach that deals with issues as they arise, whereas CBT is much more rigid, where Clients are encouraged to discuss a specific problem using CBT, which is often considered a short-term approach (Kellogg, 2004). According to Kellogg

, (2004), the most effective, evidence-based treatment methods for a wide variety of psychological problems can also be used for organizational development besides ensuring maximum effectiveness for their clients when they are combined in consultations such as this.

Synthesis of Consulting Theories

Although Company A Tech Solutions is not an older company, it is going through considerable changes that are affecting the whole organization. Gestalt theory and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy can help consultants understand how they have already adapted to changes in their organizations and how they can continue to adapt in the future. The article written by Tsoukas and Chia (2002), explains the importance for organizations to embrace changes as well as address the current changes because an organization whose culture is unwilling to adapt to changing circumstances is likely to fail. Since environments in which an organization operates might change rapidly, the organization must be able to adapt as well, since an organization is a pattern constructed, shaped, and arising from change (Tsoukas & Chia, 2002).

The only way to bring about change is to be aware of what is happening now. By directing a client to be aware of his feelings because of certain situations or surroundings, a realization can be had that may lead to a change in their reactions or actions, and help their clients realize that the self is ever-changing and is a product of the context of their environment (Tsoukas & Chia, 2002). As a result of a negative experience with adapting staff to this current change, the owner of Company A Tech Solutions has become hesitant to implement other changes for fear of pushback. In some cases, managers may not be aware of how the way they feel about change affects other staff members.

PSY FPX 6730 Assessment 4 Theoretical Foundations

A Gestalt consultant could assist them in identifying this. Furthermore, CBT principles can be applied to organizational coaching, in order to create a more conducive environment for change, Egeland et al. (2019) believe that changing perspectives within an organization causes people to relate to their thoughts differently. In the same way that Gestalt’s theory helps the organization adapt to change, cognitive behavior coaching can help managers and owners make decisions based on facts and not preconceived beliefs (Egeland et al., 2019). In addition to helping them move past antiquated methods, CBT can help them discover what new methods can offer them, furthermore, it can assist them in identifying and changing beliefs that hold them back and in developing productive behaviors (Block, 2011).

Consulting Guidelines

In order to create a successful change strategy, consulting should act more as an advisor, coaching and guiding people whenever necessary. An effective method is to implement a whole-client approach (Block, 2011). As Block (2011) explains, a whole-client approach is intended to address a problem by involving most of the people who will be impacted or need to make changes in redefining the problem, setting goals, identifying alternatives, and devising the best strategy. People who need to change and succeed long-term are the ones who determine what is best for them and what they need to do. This approach is vital to consulting because they are the ones who will decide what is best. Providing objectivity and willingness to make clients confront issues they were unwilling to confront before are the responsibilities of consultants (Block, 2011).

Conclusion

Thus, it is important that the consultant implement Gestalt Theory as well as Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in order to properly assist the owner of Company A Tech Solutions. Both of these methods will be useful in helping the consultant and owner introduce an organizational structure and better train staff through an all-encompassing approach. Ultimately, these two approaches will allow the consultant to use techniques to help the owner and Company A Tech Solutions achieve their ultimate goal of forming a well-structured organization with a team capable of effectively communicating with each other.

References

Beidas, R. S., Edmunds, J. M., Cannuscio, C. C., Gallagher, M., Downey, M. M., & Kendall, P. C. (2013). Therapists’ perspectives on the effective elements of consultation following training. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 40(6), 507-517.

Block, P. (2011). Flawless consulting: A guide to getting your expertise used. Center for Creative Leadership.

Chidiac, M. (2013). An organizational change approach based on Gestalt psychotherapy theory and practice. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 26(3), 458-474.

Davis, R., Campbell, R., Hildon, Z., Hobbs, L., & Michie, S. (2015). Theories of behavior and behavior change across the social and behavioral sciences: a scoping review. Health psychology review, 9(3), 323-344.

Egeland, K. M., Skar, A. M. S., Endsjø, M., Laukvik, E. H., Bækkelund, H., Babaii, A., … & Aarons, G. A. (2019). Testing the leadership and organizational change for implementation (LOCI) intervention in Norwegian mental health clinics: a stepped-wedge cluster randomized design study protocol. Implementation Science, 14(1), 1-12.

PSY FPX 6730 Assessment 4 Theoretical Foundations

Hyland, P., & Boduszek, D. (2012). Resolving a difference between cognitive therapy and rational emotive behavior therapy: towards the development of an integrated CBT model of psychopathology. The Mental Health Review, 17(2), 104-116.

Kellogg, S. (2004). Dialogical Encounters: Contemporary Perspectives on” Chairwork” in Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 41(3), 310.

Kilburg, R. R., & Donohue, M. D. (2011). Toward a “grand unifying theory” of leadership: Implications for consulting psychology. Consulting psychology journal: Practice and Research, 63(1), 6.

Nevis, E. C., P.H.D. (2010). Commentary I. A Poetics of Practice: Organizational Consulting from a Gestalt Perspective. Gestalt Review, 14(3), 301-304.

Tsoukas, H., & Chia, R. (2002). On organizational becoming: Rethinking organizational change. Organization Science, 13(5), 567-582.