PSY FPX 7421 Assessment 6 Problem Solving, Decision Making, and Intelligence
Phillip April 23, 2024 No Comments

PSY FPX 7421 Assessment 6 Problem Solving, Decision Making, and Intelligence

PSY FPX 7421 Assessment 6 Problem Solving, Decision Making, and Intelligence


Capella university

PSY FPX 7421 Cognitive/Affective Psychology

Prof. Name


Problem Solving, Decision Making, and Intelligence

Problem solving, decision making, and intelligence are fundamental cognitive processes essential for navigating daily life. Problem solving involves employing creativity to overcome obstacles and achieve goals. Decision making relies on reasoning and understanding consequences to select the best course of action. Intelligence, whether human or artificial, encompasses cognitive abilities crucial for adaptation and learning. These functions often intertwine, influencing each other in various contexts. This review explores literature on these topics, addressing multicultural and ethical considerations while examining their physiological underpinnings.

Problem-Solving and Creativity

Problem solving and creativity are intricately linked within cognition, each contributing to innovative solutions. Problem solving entails identifying obstacles between the present and a goal and devising strategies to overcome them (Goldstein, 2019). Creativity, defined as novel creations with potential value, often plays a crucial role in problem-solving processes. Creative problem solving involves thinking “outside the box” to generate unconventional solutions. Gestalt psychologists emphasize the importance of understanding problem representation and reorganization in productive thinking (Goldstein, 2019). Convergent and divergent thinking patterns influence creative problem solving, with the latter allowing for open-ended exploration of multiple solutions (Goldstein, 2019).

Multicultural/Ethical Aspects

In multicultural settings, incorporating diverse viewpoints enhances creativity in problem solving. While brainstorming is a common approach, individual idea generation followed by group synthesis may be more effective (Goldstein, 2019). Diversity within teams fosters creativity by incorporating unique perspectives (Team, 2023). Ethical considerations also impact problem solving and decision making. Framing choices can influence decision-making strategies, leading to ethical dilemmas (Goldberg, 2019). Emotional influences on reasoning and decision making further complicate ethical considerations, as emotions can sway choices and perceptions (Goldberg, 2019).

Brain Physiology

The physiological basis of problem solving and decision making involves intricate neural networks. Brain imaging studies reveal the involvement of executive control networks during creative tasks (Goldstein, 2019). Different types of problem solving engage distinct brain regions, highlighting the complexity of cognitive processes (Goldstein, 2019). Decision making relies on brain areas associated with emotion and cognitive control, with neural activity reflecting the evaluation of choices (Goldberg, 2019).

Decision Making and Reasoning

Decision making encompasses various reasoning strategies, including inductive and deductive approaches. Inductive reasoning involves drawing conclusions based on observations and past experiences (Team, 2023). Deductive reasoning relies on logical assumptions to derive conclusions, albeit with potential limitations in flexibility (Team, 2023). Decision-making frameworks, such as the utility approach, emphasize rational decision making but may overlook emotional and contextual factors (Goldberg, 2019). Dual systems theory suggests that unconscious and conscious mental processes influence decision making (Goldberg, 2019).

Human and Artificial Intelligence

Intelligence encompasses cognitive abilities essential for learning and adaptation. Human intelligence involves complex cognitive processes, including inference, language use, and problem solving (Miller, 2003). Artificial intelligence (AI) simulates cognitive functions through reinforcement learning algorithms (Zhao et al., 2022). Despite advancements, AI lacks emotional intelligence, posing challenges in decision-making contexts (Zhao et al., 2022). Multicultural considerations challenge traditional classifications of intelligence, highlighting the social construction of concepts like race (Sternberg, 2012).


Problem solving, decision making, and intelligence are interconnected cognitive processes influenced by multicultural, ethical, and physiological factors. Understanding the complexities of these processes is crucial for addressing societal challenges and advancing cognitive science.


Goldstein, B. E. (2019). Cognitive psychology: Connecting mind, research, and everyday experience (5th ed.). Cengage.

Leung, K., & Wang, J. (2015). Social processes and team creativity in multicultural teams: A socio-technical framework. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(7), 1008–1025.

Miller, G. A. (2003). The cognitive revolution: A historical perspective. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 141–144.

PSY FPX 7421 Assessment 6 Problem Solving, Decision Making, and Intelligence

Sternberg, R. J. (2012). Intelligence. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 14(1), 19–27.

Team, D. E. (2023, March 12). Inductive versus deductive reasoning: Understand the differences. Retrieved from

Zhao, J., Wu, M., Zhou, L., Wang, X., & Jia, J. (2022). Cognitive psychology-based Artificial Intelligence Review. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 16