PSY FPX 7610 Assessment 2 Evaluation of Technical Quality
Phillip April 16, 2024 No Comments

PSY FPX 7610 Assessment 2 Evaluation of Technical Quality

PSY FPX 7610 Assessment 2 Evaluation of Technical Quality

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Capella University

PSY FPX 7610 Tests and Measurements

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Date

Introduction

There are several domains that clinical neuropsychologists can measure which allows them to make appropriate diagnosis for cognitive impairments. It is crucial for the tools to measure cognition to provide accurate results (Rae-Grant & Parsons, 2014). The psychometric characteristics are important to determine if the battery is appropriate for its intended use. Each neuropsychological battery is tested on its validity which means the tests should measure what they are intended to measure. They are also tested on their reliability. Each test is compared with others to ensure that the results they provide are accurate, precision and have the ability to be replicated if necessary (Cohen et al., 2022).

There are several batteries clinical neuropsychologists use to measure cognition. They often use entire batteries along with supplementary tests to address the patient’s concerns. Three commonly used assessments clinical neuropsychologists administer are the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB), and the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery (HRNB). These tests measure cognition over several domains. Clinical neuropsychologists often administer these tests to determine the level of cognition a patient presents.

PSY FPX 7610 Assessment 2 Evaluation of Technical Quality

The RBANS is an assessment with 12 subtests that measures immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial, language, and attention. The appropriate demographic to administer this assessment is individuals ages 12-89 years old (Randolph, 2012). The NAB has 36 tests split into six modules. This assessment measures attention, language, spatial, memory and executive function in adults 18-97 years of age. The NAB is unique due to the flexibility in the administration. It also has a screening module to determine if further tests in a particular domain is necessary (Stern & White, 2003).

The HRNB is a set of tests that focuses on physical brain function and determine the effects of brain damage or injury. This battery contains ten tests that measure motor function, language, auditory, attention, executive function, and visuospatial abilities. The original development of the test included individuals aged 14-50 years old. There have been revisions since its inceptions that include individuals up to 85 years of age. This paper analyzes the validity and reliability of the three batteries to determine if they are adequate tests to evaluate adults 50 and older with several types of cognitive impairments.

Technical Review Article Summaries for the RBANS

McKay, C., Casey, J. E., Wertheimer, J., & Fictenberg, N. L. (2007). Reliability and validity of the RBANS in a traumatic brain injured sample. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22(1), 91–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acn.2006.11.003

This study conducted by McKay et al. (2007), analyzed the validity of the RBANS for patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI). The battery produces index scores comparable to scores that tests specific domains, which shows how effective the RBANS is as a comprehensive battery. These scores allow clinical neuropsychologists the ability to save time by administering this test to produce scores in several cognitive domains and diagnose multiple neurological disorders. There is sufficient research to show the index scores are comparable, but there is a lack of research for the individual test scores. The researchers hypothesized the index scores would show strong reliability with the exception of the language and attention scores and the subtests will produce valid scores comparable to other neuropsychological tests that measure those same domains.

The study included 57 adults with brain injuries 20 years of age or older. The researchers administered the RBANS to the participants and compared the results to normative data for other neuropsychological tests. The results showed the RBANS Total Scale score was internally consistent for adults with TBIs (.83). The results supported the researcher’s first hypothesis as the language and attention showed a weaker reliability between the subtests. The data also supports their second hypothesis as each subtest produced scores comparable to other neuropsychological tests measuring the same domains. The results showed the RBANS has a strong convergent validity as a screening tool especially for adults with TBIs.

PSY FPX 7610 Assessment 2 Evaluation of Technical Quality

Gontkovsky, S. T., Beatty, W. W., & Mold, J. W. (2004). Repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status in a normal, geriatric sample. Clinical Gerontologist, 27(3).

Gontkovsky et al. (2004) investigated the psychometrics and reliability of the RBANS. Many older individuals are prone to fatigue when performing tasks from longer batteries which makes the RBANS an ideal assessment for this demographic. The test lasts 30 minutes and provides the examiner with comprehensive scores over five cognitive domains. Other briefer tests are not able to detect certain forms of impairment such as dementia. The researchers aimed to test the reliability and validity of the RBANS on a healthy geriatric sample. The study included 631 participants aged 64-94 years old. Testing administration was located in the primary care physician office of the participant and by a trained research nurse.

The results showed that Cronbach’s alpha of the domain and total scores was .86. Intercorrelation coefficients ranged from .25 to .79 with a 26% in variance. The reliability of the proved to be internally consistent. The score of each tests correlates to the index scores of the domains as well as the overall score. These findings support the results of other researchers analyzing the RBANS which suggests the test has convergent validity.

Technical Review Article Summaries for the NAB

Donders, J., & Levitt, T. (2012). Criterion validity of the neuropsychological assessment battery after traumatic brain injury. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27(4), 440–445. https://doi.org/10.1093/arclin/acs043

Donders and Levitt (2012) conducted a study to examine the criterion validity for the NAB. There is large amount of research on the NAB and cognitive disorders, but limited research on the validity for individuals with traumatic brain injuries (TBI). The researchers aimed to examine the domain sensitivity to TBI. Donders and Levitt used prior research on TBI and determined that in order for the NAB to reflect valid scores, the mean performance should be significantly worse when compared to healthy individuals with the same demographics, a moderate range effect size, and the score indexes should show statistically significant negative correlations with coma lengths. The researchers administered the NAM to 54 participants 18 years or older with a TBI. The results showed the mean performance of individuals with a TBI F(3,104) = 14.16, p < .001.

References

Cohen, J. A., Rudick, R. A., & Fisher, E. (2022). The neuropsychological batteries for cognitive assessment. In J. A. Cohen (Ed.), Neuropsychology: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment (2nd ed., pp. 187-215). Springer.

Donders, J., & Levitt, T. (2012). Criterion validity of the neuropsychological assessment battery after traumatic brain injury. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27(4), 440–445. https://doi.org/10.1093/arclin/acs043

Gontkovsky, S. T., Beatty

, W. W., & Mold, J. W. (2004). Repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status in a normal, geriatric sample. Clinical Gerontologist, 27(3).

PSY FPX 7610 Assessment 2 Evaluation of Technical Quality

McKay, C., Casey, J. E., Wertheimer, J., & Fictenberg, N. L. (2007). Reliability and validity of the RBANS in a traumatic brain injured sample. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22(1), 91–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acn.2006.11.003

Rae-Grant, A., & Parsons, T. D. (2014). Handbook of clinical neuropsychology. Springer.

Randolph, C. (2012). Repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS). Psychological Assessment Resources.

Stern, R. A., & White, T. (2003). Neuropsychological Assessment Battery. Psychological Assessment Resources.