PSY FPX 8842 Assessment 3 Working with Diverse Populations on Social Cohesion
Phillip April 25, 2024 No Comments

PSY FPX 8842 Assessment 3 Working with Diverse Populations on Social Cohesion

PSY FPX 8842 Assessment 3 Working with Diverse Populations on Social Cohesion


Capella university

PSY FPX 8842 Applied Sport Psychology

Prof. Name


Working with Diverse Populations on Social Cohesion

A team’s triumph, whether amateur or professional, hinges significantly on social cohesion. Cohesion, as defined by Eys and Kim (2017), encompasses athletes’ perceptions of unity and personal commitment to both the task and social objectives of the team. Achieving this cohesion can prove challenging, particularly for National Football League (NFL) clubs, which average over 200 transactions per season (Spotrac, 2019). When compounded by prevalent social issues such as police brutality and racial inequality in the United States, the attainment of cohesion becomes even more elusive. Despite initial hesitations, the NFL officially embraced social justice initiatives, notably through the Inspire Change Program (NFL, 2020), following a former player’s kneeling protest during the National Anthem in 2016.

The demographic composition of NFL athletes further complicates cohesion efforts. According to The Institute for Diversity and Ethics in Sport (2019), 70.1% of NFL athletes are non-white, contrasting starkly with the 39.9% non-white population in the United States (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019). Yet, until recently, public support from the league for its non-white players had been lacking. Addressing cohesion thus demands tailored approaches for different athlete groups, rooted in an understanding of their backgrounds and experiences.

PSY FPX 8842 Assessment 3 Working with Diverse Populations on Social Cohesion

For white athletes, fostering understanding of racial inequality and its impact on their non-white counterparts is paramount. This entails simple yet impactful activities drawing upon personal experiences, such as reflecting on unfair treatment based on arbitrary differences, like offensive versus defensive roles (NFL Communications, 2020). Conversely, non-white athletes require environments conducive to open dialogue, necessitating patience from their white counterparts, who may need time to grasp unfamiliar concepts shaped by their distinct upbringings (Crace & Hardy, 1997).

Similarly, coaching staff must navigate gender dynamics to achieve social cohesion. Despite increased female involvement in football, the coaching realm remains predominantly male. This gender disparity, highlighted by The Institute for Diversity and Ethics in Sport (2019), underscores the need for concerted efforts to address gender-based biases and microaggressions within coaching circles (Yang & Carroll, 2018).

For male coaches, recognizing and rectifying unconscious biases, such as microaggressions, is crucial. Empowering female coaches involves providing them with assertiveness training and conflict resolution skills to navigate potential tensions arising from differing coaching styles (Hanrahan & Andersen, 2010).

In conclusion, direct intervention emerges as the most effective strategy for fostering social cohesion among coaches and athletes. Yukelson’s (1997) four-part intervention model—assessment, education, brainstorming, and implementation—provides a structured framework for facilitating team building initiatives. By actively involving participants in the process, this approach fosters receptivity and minimizes the influence of preconceived notions, thereby promoting inclusive environments conducive to cohesion (Eys & Kim, 2017).

However, while strides towards cohesion are commendable, cultural nuances and individual differences pose ongoing challenges. Vigilance is necessary to prevent exclusionary behaviors and maintain a balance between social closeness and constructive criticism, essential for sustained progress in task cohesion within sports teams.


Eys, M., & Kim, J. (2017). Team Building and Group Cohesion in the Context of Sport and Performance Psychology. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Psychology, 0

Hanrahan, S. J., & Andersen, M. B. (2010). Routledge handbook of applied sport psychology: A comprehensive guide for students and practitioners. Abingdon, Oxon, England: Routledge.


NFL Communications. (2020). Houston, Florida, Saint Thomas Aquinas produce most NFL players.,-Florida,-Saint-Thomas-Aquinasproduce-most-NFL-players.aspx

PSY FPX 8842 Assessment 3 Working with Diverse Populations on Social Cohesion

Spotrac. (2019). NFL Transactions. Spotrac.Com.

The Institute for Diversity and Ethics in Sport (TIDES). (2019). 2019 Racial and Gender Report Card.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: United States. Census Bureau QuickFacts

Yang, Y., & Carroll, D. W. (2018). Gendered microaggressions in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Leadership and Research in Education, 4, 28-45.