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PSYC FPX 4310 Assessment 1 Analysis of Articles

PSYC FPX 4310 Assessment 1 Analysis of Articles Name Capella University PSYC FPX 4310 Biological Psychology Prof. Name Date Introduction The focal point of this evaluation revolves around the Neurobiology of Ecstasy (MDMA) abuse, delving into various perspectives on biological psychology through an examination of peer-reviewed articles. MDMA, or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, is a psychoactive substance commonly utilized for recreational purposes due to its euphoric and social bonding effects (Montgomery & Roberts, 2022). Nevertheless, its intricate pharmacological profile has spurred research into therapeutic applications, including the management of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and anxiety. MDMA primarily influences the serotonin system in the brain, inhibiting serotonin reuptake and leading to heightened serotonin signaling, consequently eliciting sensations of well-being and emotional warmth associated with the substance. The misuse of MDMA can result in detrimental short and long-term ramifications, encompassing physical and mental health issues such as dehydration, hyperthermia, anxiety, depression, and alterations in brain structure and function. Grasping the neurobiology of MDMA abuse is imperative for the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies, guiding public health policies, and mitigating the adverse consequences stemming from its misuse. Search Strategies To procure information concerning the neurobiology of MDMA abuse, a diverse array of search terms was employed, including “MDMA,” “ecstasy,” “3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine,” “neurobiology,” “abuse,” “brain,” “neurotransmitter,” “serotonin,” “dopamine,” “noradrenaline,” “reward,” “arousal,” “dependence,” “toxicity,” “cognitive effects,” “mental health,” “prevention,” and “treatment.” The research entailed specific methodologies, including searches conducted within the Capella University Library utilizing Boolean operators and pertinent keywords. Emphasis was placed on medical research and clinical trials pertaining to the treatment of depression. Peer-reviewed literature, original research papers, clinical trials, and studies conducted by subject-matter experts were scrutinized for accuracy and relevance. Additional data was gleaned from databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, and the National Library of Medicine to comprehensively address the neurobiology of MDMA abuse. Article Analysis Article 1 Sessa, B. (2017). MDMA and PTSD treatment. Neuroscience Letters, 649, 176–180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2016.07.004 The research methodologies in this article entail literature reviews and case studies, concentrating on the utilization of MDMA as an adjunctive therapy for PTSD. The author presents observations and experiences derived from clinical settings, citing phase one neurophysiological studies and phase two clinical trials. Further research is warranted to validate these findings owing to constraints in sample sizes. The article underscores the controlled and supervised administration of MDMA within clinical environments, highlighting distinctions from recreational usage and addressing concerns regarding neurotoxicity. Article 2 Parrott, A. C. (2013). Human psychobiology of MDMA or “Ecstasy”: An overview of 25 years of empirical research. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 28(4), 289–307. https://doi.org/10.1002/hup.2318 This article employs literature reviews and an analysis of existing evidence to delve into MDMA-drug interactions (MDMA-DIs). The author deliberates upon experimental evidence and documented clinical instances, alongside expert opinions and clinical recommendations predicated on the available evidence. The research strives to comprehend the interactions between MDMA and other substances and their potential toxicological ramifications. Article 3 Costa, G., & Gołembiowska, K. (2022). Neurotoxicity of MDMA: Main effects and mechanisms. Experimental Neurology, 347(1), 113894. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2021.113894 This review article encapsulates recent discoveries concerning the central effects of MDMA and the mechanisms underpinning its neurotoxicity. The authors deliberate upon the positive and negative repercussions of MDMA contingent upon dosage, frequency, and duration of usage. Mechanisms accountable for neurotoxic effects are expounded upon, encompassing interactions with serotonin and dopamine transporters, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and neuroinflammation. The review aspires to contribute to the formulation of preventive and therapeutic interventions aimed at mitigating the adverse health consequences associated with MDMA. Article 4 R., Shokry, I. M., & Callanan, J. J. (2017). Environment influencing serotonin syndrome induced by ecstasy abuse. Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis, 4(1), 1039. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5931730/ This article scrutinizes investigations pertaining to the influence of non-drug factors on MDMA-induced serotonin syndrome. The authors analyze extant data to elucidate the impact of environmental conditions on serotonergic extrasynaptic receptor responsivity and the severity of serotonin syndrome. The research accentuates factors beyond the drug itself that could impact the severity of the syndrome. Article 5 Montgomery, C., & Roberts, C. A. (2022). Neurological and cognitive alterations induced by MDMA in humans. Experimental Neurology, 347(1), 113888. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2021.113888 This study delineates the neurological and cognitive effects of MDMA, exploring human-based research and delineating potential cognitive alterations associated with recurrent MDMA utilization. The research underscores the challenges encountered in identifying serotonergic neurotoxicity in humans due to various confounding variables and reliance on self-reports. Structural and functional alterations within the brain attributable to ecstasy usage are underscored, with acknowledgment of the necessity for further research to elucidate its enduring effects. Conclusion The scrutinized articles furnish invaluable insights into diverse facets of MDMA utilization and its repercussions. The research accentuates the potential therapeutic merits of MDMA under regulated circumstances, while concurrently underscoring its perilous aspects, encompassing interactions with other substances and neurotoxic effects. Further research assumes paramount importance in comprehending the risks and benefits of MDMA utilization, as well as in formulating suitable preventive and therapeutic measures to ameliorate its adverse health ramifications. References Costa, G., & Gołembiowska, K. (2022). Neurotoxicity of MDMA: Main effects and mechanisms. Experimental Neurology, 347(1), 113894. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2021.113894 Montgomery, C., & Roberts, C. A. (2022). Neurological and cognitive alterations induced by MDMA in humans. Experimental Neurology, 347(1), 113888. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2021.113888 Parrott, A. C. (2013). Human psychobiology of MDMA or “Ecstasy”: An overview of 25 years of empirical research. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 28(4), 289–307. https://doi.org/10.1002/hup.2318 PSYC FPX 4310 Assessment 1 Analysis of Articles R., Shokry, I. M., & Callanan, J. J. (2017). Environment influencing serotonin syndrome induced by ecstasy abuse. Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis, 4(1), 1039. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5931730/ Sessa, B. (2017). MDMA and PTSD treatment. Neuroscience Letters, 649, 176–180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2016.07.004 PSYC FPX 4310 Assessment 1 Analysis of Articles

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