Phillip March 28, 2024 No Comments

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 7 Media and Internet: Accurate vs Inaccurate

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 7 Media and Internet: Accurate vs Inaccurate Name Capella University BIO FPX 1000 Human Biology Prof. Name Date Media and Internet: Accurate vs Inaccurate Several persistent misconceptions surround COVID-19 vaccination, affecting various demographics, including pregnant women and those attempting to conceive. Despite over two years since the onset of the pandemic, substantial misunderstanding and misinformation persist. The safety of the vaccination for expectant mothers remains contentious, with concerns revolving around potential miscarriage risks or dangers to pregnant women (Wang et al., 2021). This presentation aims to delve into the topic of COVID-19 vaccines and their impact on pregnant individuals as part of BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 7 Homework: Media and Internet: Accurate vs Inaccurate. One or More Additional Resources The article titled “COVID-19 Vaccination during Pregnancy: Coverage and Safety” provides an extensive analysis of the effects of COVID-19 vaccination on pregnancy. The insights presented in this article offer robust evidence supporting the stance advocated in this presentation. Based on studies conducted at London’s University Hospital National Health Science Organization, the article addresses concerns regarding the safety of COVID-19 vaccination for pregnant women (Blakeway et al., 2021). Drawing upon a cohort study, the journal article demonstrates that both vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant women experienced similar outcomes. The research unequivocally establishes that COVID-19 immunization does not affect perinatal outcomes or fertility. Furthermore, the article advocates for mRNA vaccinations among expecting women, highlighting their popularity and lower incidence of side effects (Blakeway et al., 2021). The credibility of the chosen article undergoes assessment utilizing a credibility framework. Hosted on the .gov domain, the article from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is deemed legitimate, meeting the criteria of the CRAAP test. Evaluation by professionals possessing expertise in vaccinations and immunizations, such as doctors, researchers, and epidemiologists, bolsters its reliability. The CDC’s oversight ensures that the content aligns with educational objectives for various healthcare professionals and stakeholders (Wei et al., 2021). Media or Internet Topic Reddit, a social news and information website, serves as a popular platform for sharing and discovering stories. However, it frequently disseminates incorrect information. Despite its widespread use for information dissemination, Reddit lacks independent content verification. Subreddits dedicated to propaganda contribute to the proliferation of misinformation, including false beliefs regarding vaccine safety for pregnant women (Lee et al., 2021). What Was Learned About the Selected Topic Research findings indicate that COVID-19 vaccination diminishes the risk of infection and severe complications in pregnant women. The CDC recommends vaccination for pregnant, nursing, and preconception individuals, emphasizing its safety and absence of adverse effects on fertility (Kalidas, 2021). Specific Symptoms or Prevention Methods Identified Pregnant women afflicted with COVID-19 face elevated risks of severe complications and adverse fetal outcomes. Preventative measures encompass the use of disinfectants, regular handwashing, adherence to social distancing guidelines, and avoidance of crowded spaces. Embracing healthy lifestyle choices contributes significantly to overall well-being (Abrams et al., 2022). Determination of Topic Information The investigation relies on academic, peer-reviewed articles, employing the CRAAP test to evaluate source credibility. Predominantly, articles from .gov and .org domains, including those from the CDC, were utilized to ensure reliability. Cross-referencing with reputable sources further corroborated the information (Lotfi et al., 2020). Conclusion Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, misinformation pertaining to vaccination, particularly among pregnant women, proliferates across social media platforms like Reddit. A critical evaluation of information originating from reputable sources is imperative to debunk false assumptions regarding COVID-19 vaccination (Abrams et al., 2022). References Abrams, S., Delf, L., Drummond, R., & Kelly, K. (2022). The CRAAP Test. Open. Oregon State. education. https://open.oregonstate.education/goodargument/chapter/craap-test/ Blakeway, H., Prasad, S., Kalafat, E., Heath, P. T., Ladhani, S. N., Doare, K. L., Magee, L. A., O’brien, P., Rezvani, A., Dadelszen, P. von, & Khalil, A. (2021). COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy: Coverage and safety. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.08.007 Esparrago-Kalidas, A. J. (2021). The effectiveness of CRAAP test in evaluating credibility of sources. International Journal of TESOL & Education, 1(2), 1–14. https://i-jte.org/index.php/journal/article/view/25 Kalidas, A. J. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 in pregnancy: Part I. Clinical presentations and untoward outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, 84(9), 813–820. https://doi.org/10.1097/jcma.0000000000000595 BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 7 Media and Internet: Accurate vs Inaccurate Lee, W.-L., Yang, S.-T., Tsui, K.-H., Chang, C.-C., & Lee, F.-K. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy: Part II. Implications for maternal and child health. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, 84(9), 821–825. https://doi.org/10.1097/jcma.0000000000000608 Lotfi, M., Hamblin, M. R., & Rezaei, N. (2020). COVID-19: Transmission, prevention, and potential therapeutic opportunities. Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry, 508, 254–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2020.05.044 Wang, C.-L., liu, Y.-Y., Wu, C.-H., Wang, C.-Y., Wang, C.-H., & Long, C.-Y. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 on Pregnancy. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 18(3), 763–767. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijms.49923 Wei, S. Q., Bilodeau-Bertrand, M., Liu, S., & Auger, N. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 193(16), cmaj.202604. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.202604 BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 7 Media and Internet: Accurate vs Inaccurate

Phillip March 28, 2024 No Comments

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 6 Patient Case Study Profiles – Cancer Causes

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 6 Patient Case Study Profiles – Cancer Causes Name Capella University BIO FPX 1000 Human Biology Prof. Name Date Patient Profile – Cancer Susceptibility in Women Mary Mary, a robust 64-year-old woman, experienced her first childbirth at the age of 20 and entered menopause at 58. Following menopause, she underwent estrogen replacement treatment for approximately six years, leading to weight gain. Her mother was diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 37, and Mary had her first menstruation at 13. Breast Cancer Risks Associated with Mary: Based on the information, Mary faces a heightened risk of developing breast cancer. According to Łukasiewicz et al. (2021), women with a family history of cancer have a doubled likelihood of developing the disease. The Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool indicates a 3.1% chance of invasive breast cancer in the next five years and a lifetime risk of 12.1%, surpassing the U.S. average of 8.1% for women. Mary’s Recommendation: Mary is advised to continue estrogen replacement treatment for breast cancer risk reduction (Manyonda et al., 2022). Despite her elevated risk due to family history, stress management is crucial. Mary should adopt a healthy lifestyle by maintaining a proper diet, avoiding alcohol, staying active, and undergoing regular breast cancer screenings every 40 days. Paula At 71, Paula is battling bladder cancer that has spread to her ovaries and lymphatic vessels. Her sister underwent breast cancer treatment three years ago, and her mother succumbed to lung cancer. Two paternal uncles and her maternal grandma also faced cancer. Breast Cancer Risks Associated with Paula: Paula’s family history indicates a high breast cancer risk. According to Łukasiewicz et al. (2021), her estimated risk in the next five years is 8.3%, exceeding the U.S. average of 2.1%. Her lifetime risk is 18.2%, surpassing the 5.1% average. Paula’s Recommendation: Given Paula’s extensive family history, vigilance is crucial. Diagnostic screenings are recommended, especially with her sister’s BRCA1 mutation. Additionally, chemotherapy for bladder cancer is advised (Mar & Dayyani, 2019). June June, aged 58, undergoes regular mammograms. Her family history includes her aunt’s breast cancer and her mother’s brain tumor. June’s blood pressure and cholesterol levels are high, and she has fragile bones. Breast Cancer Risks Associated with June: June’s risk of breast cancer in the next five years is 2.6%, higher than the average of 1.7%. Her lifetime risk is 14.6%, exceeding the 9.5% U.S. average (National Institute of Health). June’s Recommendation: Due to oral contraceptive history, June should undergo regular mammograms with a 7% increased breast cancer risk (Bardaweel et al., 2019). Controlling hypertension and cholesterol through the DASH eating plan is advised, along with a diet rich in calcium to combat osteoporosis. Nora Nora, 51, hasn’t reached menopause, and her family history includes breast and colon cancer. Breast Cancer Risks Associated with Nora: Nora’s estimated risk for breast cancer in the next five years is 3%, exceeding the 1.3% average. Her lifetime risk is 23.8%, surpassing the 11% U.S. average. Nora’s Recommendation: Nora should undergo BRCA1 testing due to her family history. Lifestyle changes, such as avoiding alcohol and maintaining a healthy diet, are crucial. Regular examinations and addressing risk factors, including age at first pregnancy and oral contraceptive use, are essential (Bardaweel et al., 2019; Sahin et al., 2019). References: Aurin, J., Thorlacius, H., & Butt, S. T. (2020). Age at first childbirth and breast cancer survival: a prospective cohort study. BMC Research Notes, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4864-1 Bardaweel, S. K., Akour, A. A., Al-Muhaissen, S., AlSalamat, H. A., & Ammar, K. (2019). Oral contraceptive and breast cancer: Do benefits outweigh the risks? A case–control study from Jordan. BMC Women’s Health, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-019-0770-x Łukasiewicz, S., Czeczelewski, M., Forma, A., Baj, J., Sitarz, R., & Stanisławek, A. (2021). Breast Cancer—epidemiology, risk factors, classification, prognostic markers, and current treatment strategies—An Updated Review. Cancers, 13(17), 4287. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174287 BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 6 Patient Case Study Profiles – Cancer Causes Manyonda, I., Sinai Talaulikar, V., Pirhadi, R., Ward, J., Banerjee, D., & Onwude, J. (2022). Could perimenopausal estrogen prevent breast cancer? Exploring the differential effects of estrogen-only versus combined Hormone Replacement Therapy. Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, 14(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr4646 Mar, K., & Dayyani, F. (2019). Chemotherapy for bladder cancer. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537121/ National Institute of Health. (n.d.). Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool. https://bcrisktool.cancer.gov/ Sahin, I., Bilir, B., Ali, S., Sahin, K., & Kucuk, O. (2019). Soy isoflavones in integrative oncology: Increased efficacy and decreased toxicity of cancer therapy. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 18, 153473541983531. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534735419835310 BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 6 Patient Case Study Profiles – Cancer Causes

Phillip March 28, 2024 No Comments

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 5 Genetics Lab

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 5 Genetics Lab Name Capella University BIO FPX 1000 Human Biology Prof. Name Date Genetics Lab The Genetics Laboratory offers comprehensive services encompassing all aspects of chromosome studies, including congenital diseases, prenatal diagnostics, and hematologic or oncologic conditions. The laboratory provides technical guidance and consultative expertise to ensure quality patient care and foster interprofessional collaboration. This assessment will address the inheritance and genetic changes, describe the genetic procedure determining gender, explain the results of the karyotype, explore how chromosomal abnormalities affect body systems, and discuss the pros and cons of genetic testing and its impact on patients. Chances of Individuals Inheriting the Autosomal Trait When both parents are carriers or heterozygous, autosomal recessive diseases most frequently manifest, with a 25% probability of passing the condition to their offspring. According to the Punnett square model, the allele responsible for the illness has a 50% probability of inheritance from each parent (Gulani & Weiler, 2020). The probability multiplication rule suggests a 50% chance for both the mother and the father to transmit their disease allele (Gulani & Weiler, 2020). Inheriting two disease alleles with a recessive pattern results in an autosomal recessive disease, following Mendel’s Law of Segregation. Pedigree analysis helps identify the inheritance pattern in families, with autosomal recessive disorders typically affecting males and females equally. The pattern may skip generations, and affected individuals are often the offspring of unaffected carriers. Horizontal transmission may explain the presence of sick individuals in multiple locations (Gulani & Weiler, 2020). The Gender of the Second Patient in a Lab Scenario Sandra, a 28-year-old sickle cell anemic patient in her third trimester of pregnancy, sought a prenatal genetic checkup. Sickle cell disease (SCD) results from a monogenetic condition caused by a single base-pair point mutation in the β-globin gene. The disease’s phenotypic diversity is characterized by recurrent pain episodes, chronic hemolytic anemia, and increased susceptibility to infections (Inusa et al., 2019). SCD is an autosomal recessive disorder, and its prevalence is not influenced by gender. However, reports indicate sex-related variations in SCD mortality and morbidity among adult patients, with higher mortality in men (Ceglie et al., 2019). Results of the Karyotype Karyotype testing is essential for recognizing and treating various diseases. Positive results indicate unexpected changes in the number or structure of chromosomes, while negative results confirm the absence of such mutations. Abnormal results can provide insights into the patient’s or child’s health based on the identified chromosome mutations (Shi et al., 2019). Genetic Counselor’s Explanation Karyotype testing, while identifying genetic mutations on the 11th chromosome, may not fully detect sickle cell anemia and requires additional tests, including genetic and prenatal testing. Positive and Negative Ramifications of Genetic Testing Genetic testing for rare diseases raises ethical considerations related to individuals, organizations, and healthcare systems (Kruse et al., 2022). Positive Ramifications: Rapid genetic diagnosis advancements, particularly with next-generation sequencing technologies. Early and accurate diagnosis reduces the need for intrusive, costly testing. Negative Ramifications: Ethical issues such as privacy concerns with disease disclosure to relatives. Ethical concerns regarding post-mortem genetic testing counseling. Laboratories may have limited interest in genetic testing for sporadic disorders due to low test volume and high development costs (Kruse et al., 2022). Impact of Positive and Negative Ramifications The identified mutation on the 11th chromosome allows Sandra to better treat her child, plan for future pregnancies, but poses a risk to her other children due to increased chances of inheriting sickle cell anemia (Shah & Krishnamurti, 2021). Conclusion Genetic testing is a valuable tool for understanding an individual’s genetic makeup and detecting mutations leading to specific medical conditions. Karyotype examination is crucial for timely disease detection and treatment. While genetic testing has pros such as timely disease detection, ethical challenges regarding identification remain a significant concern. References Ceglie, G., Di Mauro, M., Tarissi De Jacobis, I., de Gennaro, F., Quaranta, M., Baronci, C., Villani, A., & Palumbo, G. (2019). Gender-Related differences in sickle cell disease in a pediatric cohort: A single-center retrospective study. Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, 6. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2019.00140 Gulani, A., & Weiler, T. (2020). Genetics, Autosomal Recessive. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK546620/ Inusa, B., Hsu, L., Kohli, N., Patel, A., Ominu-Evbota, K., Anie, K., & Atoyebi, W. (2019). Sickle cell disease—genetics, pathophysiology, clinical presentation and treatment. International Journal of Neonatal Screening, 5(2), 20. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns5020020 BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 5 Genetics Lab Kruse, J., Mueller, R., Aghdassi, A. A., Lerch, M. M., & Salloch, S. (2022). Genetic testing for rare diseases: A systematic review of ethical aspects. Frontiers in Genetics, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.701988 Shah, N., & Krishnamurti, L. (2021). Evidence-based minireview: In young children with severe sickle cell disease, do the benefits of HLA-identical sibling donor HCT outweigh the risks? Hematology, 2021(1), 190–195. https://doi.org/10.1182/hematology.2021000322 Shi, Y., Ma, J., Xue, Y., Wang, J., Yu, B., & Wang, T. (2019). The assessment of combined karyotype analysis and chromosomal microarray in pregnant women of advanced maternal age: a multicenter study. Annals of Translational Medicine, 7(14), 318–318. https://doi.org/10.21037/atm.2019.06.63 BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 5 Genetics Lab

Phillip March 27, 2024 No Comments

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Digestion Lab

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Digestion Lab Name Capella University BIO FPX 1000 Human Biology Prof. Name Date Digestion Lab Food digestion is a multifaceted physiological process that involves a combination of physiochemical mechanisms (Livovsky et al., 2020). Initiated by the intake of food, this process encompasses the breakdown of food into simpler components, absorption of nutrients, transportation to relevant organs for absorption, and the elimination of waste through the anus or bladder (Sensoy, 2021). Exploration of Digestion Lab This article delves into the Digestion Lab, with a specific focus on estimating an individual’s daily caloric intake, discussing normal values, and providing a percentage calculation along with explanations. Furthermore, it provides details on serving size, calories, sodium, carbohydrates, vitamins, proteins, and minerals in a selected food item. An analysis based on labeled packaging descriptions, along with the pros and cons of the items, is also presented. Daily Caloric Intake Calories represent the energy absorbed from food breakdown, which is essential for various bodily functions. The recommended daily caloric intake is approximately 2000 calories for women and 2500 for men, subject to variations based on factors such as age, metabolism, and physical activity (Kolte et al., 2022). Adequate calorie intake is crucial for maintaining health, as insufficient intake can lead to lethargy, while excess intake can contribute to obesity, heart disease, and arthritis (Osilla & Sharma, 2019). Pregnant or lactating women may require increased calorie intake to support fetal and placental tissue growth (Most et al., 2019). Percentage of Daily Calories In the examination of Crazy Richard’s Peanut Butter as the chosen food item, the recommended serving size is 1-2 tbsp (32g) with 180 calories. While the fat content is 16g and protein is 8g, it falls slightly below the recommended fat intake. The article stresses the importance of maintaining a daily fat percentage of 25-35% to ensure a healthy heart, as recommended by the American Heart Association. Additionally, it provides information on calcium, iron, and protein requirements based on USDA guidelines (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2020). Pros and Cons of the Serving Size Crazy Richard’s Crunchy Peanut Butter, being a protein-rich option, is recommended in 2 tbsp servings. While it enhances the flavor of various foods, excessive consumption may contribute to weight gain due to its polyunsaturated fat content. The disclosure of 180 calories per serving on the label signifies rich nutritional value. Pros and Cons of the Food’s Sodium, Carbohydrate, Sugar, Protein, Vitamins, and Minerals The label analysis reveals 16g of fat and 8g of protein, slightly below recommended amounts. The peanut butter contains 0% sodium, 2g sugar, 5g total carbs (3g dietary fiber, 2g sugar), and provides essential minerals as per USDA guidelines. Pros include nutritional minerals, while cons may arise when combined with sugary foods. Label Analysis and Food Item Pros and Cons Peanut butter, a versatile ingredient, offers nutritional benefits but may contribute to excessive sugar intake in certain preparations, leading to potential health concerns. Addressing Misleading Packaging To tackle misleading packaging, the article advocates for ethical considerations, emphasizing consumer rights and the need for accurate information on food labels to promote a healthier population (Schifferstein et al., 2021). Conclusion In summary, the Digestion Lab assessment focused on daily caloric intake, examined a selected food item (Crazy Richard’s Crunchy Peanut Butter), and discussed its pros and cons. The article underscored the importance of accurate food labels for consumer awareness and health. References Kolte, A., Mahajan, Y., & Vasa, L. (2022). Balanced diet and daily calorie consumption: Consumer attitude during the COVID-19 pandemic from an emerging economy. PLOS ONE, 17(8). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0270843 Livovsky, D. M., Pribic, T., & Azpiroz, F. (2020). Food, eating, and the gastrointestinal tract. Nutrients, 12(4), 986. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040986 Most, J., Dervis, S., Haman, F., Adamo, K. B., & Redman, L. M. (2019). Energy intake requirements in pregnancy. Nutrients, 11(8), 1812. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081812 Osilla, E. V., & Sharma, S. (2019, June 18). Calories. Nih.gov; StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499909/ BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Digestion Lab Schifferstein, H. N. J., de Boer, A., & Lemke, M. (2021). Conveying information through food packaging: A literature review comparing legislation with consumer perception. Journal of Functional Foods, 86, 104734. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2021.104734 Sensoy, I. (2021). A review on the food digestion in the digestive tract and the used in vitro models. Current Research in Food Science, 4, 308–319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crfs.2021.04.004 U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2020). Protein Foods | MyPlate. Www.myplate.gov. https://www.myplate.gov/eat-healthy/protein-foods BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Digestion Lab

Phillip March 27, 2024 No Comments

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Urinary Lab

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Urinary Lab Name Capella University BIO FPX 1000 Human Biology Prof. Name Date Urinary Analysis: Importance and Clinical Implications The examination of urine, known as urinalysis, is a diagnostic procedure crucial for evaluating the conditions of the urinary tract, stomach, kidneys, or any morbidities resulting from hypertension or diabetes (Mayo Clinic, 2019). This article will expound upon the purpose and significance of urinary analysis, highlighting the repercussions of neglecting this essential examination. It will also delve into different types of diabetes and their respective management strategies. Additionally, the article will explore the reasons and consequences of detecting blood traces in urine. Purpose and Importance of Urinary Analysis Urinalysis, a comprehensive assessment of urine, forms an integral part of routine medical examinations conducted for health assessments and disease detection (Mayo Clinic, 2021). This analysis is essential when patients present symptoms such as painful urination, blood in urine, diabetes, kidney issues, liver problems, or other urinary concerns like those encountered during pregnancy tests. A urinalysis aids in identifying the origins of specific symptoms and indications of associated diseases. Urinalysis can be conducted through three methods: a physical examination assessing color, volume, and density; a chemical examination pinpointing various components; and a microscopic examination identifying microorganisms, cells, and crystals in urine (Milani & Jialal, 2021). The samples derived from urinalysis can unveil more than 220 diseases, making it imperative for disease identification, including diabetes, hypertension, renal, or heart failure. Diabetes and its Types Diabetes, a chronic health condition significantly impacting patients’ lives, is characterized by insulin dysfunction affecting insulin utilization or production (World Health Organization, 2022). Diabetes contributes to severe complications such as renal failure, heart attacks, strokes, blindness, and lower limb amputation (World Health Organization, 2022). The two main types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) (Saeedi et al., 2019). Type 1 diabetes results from malfunctioning insulin-producing cells, while type 2 diabetes is associated with inefficient insulin utilization, often exacerbated by increased body weight and a sedentary lifestyle. Management of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Diabetes, a lifelong condition, necessitates effective management through medication and self-management techniques. Type 1 diabetes is managed with insulin or gene therapy, including beta cell replacement therapy. Type 2 diabetes can be effectively managed by maintaining optimal body weight, controlling blood pressure, adopting an active lifestyle, and adhering to a healthy diet, along with the use of insulin medications (Tan et al., 2019). BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Urinary Lab Reasons for Blood in Urine The presence of blood in urine can result from the weakening of kidney blood vessels due to hyperglycemia. Chronic morbidity, dysfunction, and failure of vital organs like kidneys, eyes, nerves, heart, and blood arteries may occur due to hyperglycemia (Abebe et al., 2019). Blood cell traces in urine may indicate additional causes such as kidney disease, ureter issues, or prostate disease, leading to vision loss, cardiovascular dysfunctions, or limb ulcers (Abebe et al., 2019; American Diabetes Association, 2021). Patient Results Anna, a 62-year-old patient residing in Houston, presented at the outpatient department of the kidney center with complaints of high blood pressure and kidney pain. Her medical history revealed an 18-year history of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Further investigation included an ultrasound of the kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder, along with a complete urinalysis. According to the reports, the bladder’s walls appeared normal, with pre- and post-void volumes of 684 and 152 ml, respectively. The left kidney displayed a cortical thickness of 2.0 cm and a size of 10.2 cm, with a visible straightforward cyst measuring 1.2 cm in the lower pole. While simple kidney cysts may not require immediate treatment, they can potentially lead to kidney malfunction if left untreated, resulting in hypertension or renal failure. Urinalysis Result Patient name: Anne Hathway Test Level pH 5.8 Urea 27 Creatinine 1.6 Bilirubin 8.1 Urobilinogen 4.2 Elevated levels of Urobilinogen and Creatinine indicate a heightened risk of liver and kidney failure. References Abebe, M., Adane, T., Kefyalew, K., Munduno, T., Fasil, A., Biadgo, B., Ambachew, S., & Shahnawaz, S. (2019). Variation of urine parameters among diabetic patients: A cross-sectional study. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences, 29(1). https://doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v29i1.9 American Diabetes Association. (2021). 11. Chronic kidney disease and risk management: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2022. Diabetes Care, 45(Supplement_1), S175–S184. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc22-s011 Lawrence, J. M., Divers, J., Isom, S., Saydah, S., Imperatore, G., Pihoker, C., Marcovina, S. M., Mayer-Davis, E. J., Hamman, R. F., Dolan, L., Dabelea, D., Pettitt, D. J., & Liese, A. D. (2021). Trends in prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents in the US, 2001-2017. JAMA, 326(8), 717. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.11165 Mayo Clinic. (2021, October 14). Urinalysis – Mayo Clinic. Www.mayoclinic.org. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/urinalysis/about/pac-20384907#:~:text=It Milani, D. A. Q., & Jialal, I. (2021, May 9). Urinalysis. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557685/ Norris, J. M., Johnson, R. K., & Stene, L. C. (2020). Type 1 diabetes—early life origins and changing epidemiology. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 8(3), 226–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2213-8587(19)30412-7 Saeedi, P., Petersohn, I., Salpea, P., Malanda, B., Karuranga, S., Unwin, N., Colagiuri, S., Guariguata, L., Motala, A. A., Ogurtsova, K., Shaw, J. E., Bright, D., & Williams, R. (2019). Global and regional diabetes prevalence estimates for 2019 and projections for 2030 and 2045 BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Urinary Lab

Phillip March 27, 2024 No Comments

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 2 Neuromuscular Lab

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 2 Neuromuscular Lab Name Capella University BIO FPX 1000 Human Biology Prof. Name Date Neuromuscular Lab The Neuromuscular Lab: An Exploration into Peripheral Nerve Regeneration and Prosthetic Limb Control The Neuromuscular Lab, situated within the University of Michigan Department of Surgery, dedicates its efforts to understanding and addressing peripheral nerve injuries and the functional neural control of prosthetic limbs. Unlike central nervous system neural cells, peripheral nerves possess the remarkable ability to regenerate. Research conducted by the Neuromuscular Lab at the University of Michigan Department of Surgery focuses on unraveling the intricacies of the regeneration process, pioneering innovative technologies, and refining surgical techniques to enhance patient outcomes following peripheral nerve damage (University of Michigan Department of Surgery Research, 2019). This article explores the importance of comprehensive eye exams and the ramifications of neglecting them. Eye Exam A comprehensive eye exam encompasses a battery of tests designed to assess vision and detect various eye conditions. These tests may involve the use of different lenses, specialized tools, and examination of the eye under various lighting conditions. The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends a thorough eye exam at the age of 40, particularly for individuals without apparent vision issues (American Academy of Ophthalmology, n.d.). Regular eye examinations, occurring annually or biennially for individuals aged 60 or older, as well as for contact lens or glasses users, individuals with a history of vision loss, genetic eye conditions, chronic diseases such as diabetes, or those using medications with potential adverse effects on the eyes, are imperative (Mayo Clinic, 2019). Tests such as eye muscle evaluations, visual acuity tests, and refraction assessments contribute to the comprehensive evaluation of ocular health (Mayo Clinic, 2019). Routine eye examinations play a pivotal role in preventing or minimizing damage caused by certain eye conditions, with more than 75 percent of sight loss and blindness being preventable through appropriate treatment or lifestyle modifications (Toli et al., 2021). Recent research underscores mitochondrial flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) transporter deficiencies as contributors to neuromuscular dysfunction, leading to a neuro-myopathic phenotype (Al Shamsi et al., 2021). Significance of Reflex Measurement in Diagnostic Eye Exams Reflex measurement is an integral component of diagnostic eye examinations as it provides valuable insights for localizing the source of neuromuscular diseases. Reflex testing serves as a crucial tool in accurate bedside diagnosis, offering insights that may not be attainable through other modalities such as clinical neurophysiological and neuroradiological investigations (Palmer et al., 2020). Consequences of Neglecting Reflex Measurement The omission of reflex measurement during eye exams can result in undetected infections and diseases, thereby posing a risk to timely intervention and potentially serving as a barrier to addressing ocular issues that may contribute to brain injuries (Stuart et al., 2020). Patient Examinations Elena Age: 36 Complaint: Red eye and pain Blood Pressure: 140/90 mm Hg Past Ocular History: Similar episodes reported Eye Test: Diagnosed with reduced vision Possible Resolution: Recommended to avoid high beam lights Manav Dutt Age: 45 Complaint: Blurred vision, frequent headaches Blood Pressure: 140/90 mm Hg Past Ocular and Medical History: Hypertension, chain smoking Eye Test: Diagnosed with partial blindness due to chemical injury Possible Resolution: Immediate intervention recommended, referral to an ophthalmologist Spencer Hogle Age: 36 Occupation: Factory worker Complaint: Eye bleeding Blood Pressure: 113/80 mm Hg Past Ocular and Medical History: No similar issues reported Eye Test: Diagnosed with corrosive chemical metal damage Possible Resolution: Immediate surgery by an expert ophthalmologist required Conclusion Regular eye examinations, comprising various assessments, are instrumental in identifying and addressing ocular issues. Reflex measurement during diagnostic eye exams aids in localizing the source of neuromuscular diseases. Timely eye examinations are paramount to prevent overlooked issues and ensure prompt intervention. References Al Shamsi, B., Al Murshedi, F., Al Habsi, A., & Al-Thihli, K. (2021). Hypoketotic hypoglycemia without neuromuscular complications in patients with SLC25A32 deficiency. European Journal of Human Genetics. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00995-7 American Academy of Ophthalmology. (n.d.). Eye exam – Mayo Clinic. Mayoclinic.org. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/eye-exam/about/pac-20384655 Mayo Clinic. (2019). Eye exam – Mayo Clinic. Mayoclinic.org. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/eye-exam/about/pac-20384655 BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 2 Neuromuscular Lab Palmer, J. J., Jones, C., Surur, E. I., & Kelly, A. H. (2020). Understanding the role of the diagnostic “Reflex” in the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, 5(2), 52. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5020052 Stuart, S., Parrington, L., Martini, D., Peterka, R., Chesnutt, J., & King, L. (2020). The measurement of eye movements in mild traumatic brain injury: A structured review of an emerging area. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 2. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2020.00005 Toli, A., Perente, A., & Labiris, G. (2021). Evaluation of the red reflex: An overview for the pediatrician. World Journal of Methodology, 11(5), 263–277. https://doi.org/10.5662/wjm.v11.i5.263 University of Michigan Department of Surgery Research. (2019). Neuromuscular Lab | Surgery Research | Michigan Medicine. Surgery Research. https://medicine.umich.edu/dept/surgery-research/research-strengths/musculoskeletal-regenerative-medicine/neuromuscular-lab BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 2 Neuromuscular Lab

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BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 1 Cardiovascular System Lab

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 1 Cardiovascular System Lab Name Capella University BIO FPX 1000 Human Biology Prof. Name Date Cardiovascular System Lab The Cardiovascular System Lab evaluates heart function systematically, including the impact of blood pressure on cardiac performance. This entails analyzing the effects of blood pressure variations on patients as demonstrated by lab reports. This paper discusses normal blood pressure, associated levels of concern, optimal heart rate, and parameters for a healthy heart rate. Furthermore, it explores the relationship between heart rate and blood pressure, interprets cardiovascular lab results, and suggests lifestyle modifications based on the findings of the lab reports. What is Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force exerted as blood is propelled from the heart to the body. Diastolic pressure represents the force exerted as the heart expels blood, while systolic pressure is the resting pressure between cardiac beats. The optimal blood pressure range is approximately 90/60mm Hg to 120/80mm Hg (National Health Service, 2019). Hypertension is diagnosed when persistently elevated blood pressure exceeds 130/80 mm Hg, often manageable through lifestyle changes. Blood pressure in the range of 140/90 mm Hg or higher necessitates prompt medication and attention (National Health Service, 2019). What is Heart Rate Heart rate refers to the number of heartbeats per minute needed to meet the body’s oxygen demands (Harvard Health Publishing, 2020). It is important to note that a higher heart rate does not always indicate high blood pressure (Beckerman, 2002). Resting heart rate reflects the heart’s activity when the body is at rest, with 60 to 100 beats per minute considered a healthy range (American Heart Association, 2021). Maximum heart rate, the rate during strenuous activity, can be calculated using the formula 220 minus the individual’s age (American Heart Association, 2021). Abnormal heart rates, exceeding 120-140 bpm or falling below 60 bpm, raise concerns about the individual’s health (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 1 Cardiovascular System Lab Correlation between Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Persistent hypertension is a significant health concern and a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Elevated heart rate is commonly associated with hypertensive patients and is considered a contributor to hypertension and other cardiovascular issues (Dalal et al., 2019). Positive correlations exist between elevated heart rate and cardiovascular morbidity, potentially leading to premature mortality (Goorakani et al., 2020). Cardiovascular Results in Patients and Improvement of Lifestyle Changes Patient 1: Tanya Age: 40 Complaint: Frequent headaches Blood Pressure Test: 125/80 mm Hg (pre-hypertension) Heart rate Test: 66-72 bpm (normal) Patient 2: Caroline Mendoza Age: 45 Complaint: Persistent high blood pressure Blood Pressure Test: 140/90 mm Hg (intense high blood pressure) Heart rate Test: 135 bpm (alarming situation) Conclusion Blood pressure, the force exerted by the heart to pump blood, should ideally remain below 120/90 mmHg, with persistent levels above indicating high blood pressure. Heart rate, the rate at which the heart beats in a minute, exhibits variations in resting and maximum levels, with the latter dependent on the individual’s age. Hypertension poses a significant health risk and is a contributing factor to cardiovascular diseases. References American Heart Association. (2021). Know your target heart rates for exercise, losing weight, and health. www.heart.org Beckerman, J. (2002). Your Heart Rate. WebMD. www.webmd.com Dalal, J., Dasbiswas, A., Sathyamurthy, I., Maddury, S. R., Kerkar, P., Bansal, S., Thomas, J., Mandal, S. C., Mookerjee, S., Natarajan, S., Kumar, V., Chandra, N., Khan, A., Vijayakumar, R., & Sawhney, J. P. S. (2019). Heart rate in hypertension: review and expert opinion. International Journal of Hypertension, 2019, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2087064 Goorakani, Y., Sedigh Rahimabadi, M., Dehghan, A., Kazemi, M., Chijan, M. R., Bijani, M., Shahraki, H. R., Davoodi, A., Farjam, M., & Homayounfar, R. (2020). Correlation of resting heart rate with anthropometric factors and serum biomarkers in a population-based study: Fasa PERSIAN cohort study. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12872-020-01594-y Harvard Health Publishing. (2020). What your heart rate is telling you – Harvard Health. www.health.harvard.edu Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). 2 easy, accurate ways to measure your heart rate. www.mayoclinic.org National Health Service. (2019). What is blood pressure? BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 1 Cardiovascular System Lab

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