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PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 4 History and Influence of the New School of Thought

PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 4 History and Influence of the New School of Thought Name Capella University PSYC FPX 4100 History and Modern Systems of Psychology Prof. Name Date History and Influence of Feminist Psychology The domain of psychology encompasses various schools of thought that offer insights into human intelligence, behavior, culture, and social interactions. One significant modern school of thought is feminist psychology, which emerged in the 1960s and 1970s as part of the broader feminist movement. This paper explores the historical development and impact of feminist psychology. Founding Figures, Events, and Ideas Feminist psychology arose from the efforts of influential figures such as Jean Baker Miller, Nancy Chodorow, Carol Gilligan, Sandra Bem, and Mary Belenky. Their work aimed to address the marginalization and oppression of women within psychology and society at large (Wypych, 2022). Key events in the development of feminist psychology include the publication of Betty Friedan’s “The Feminine Mystique” in 1963, which catalyzed the feminist movement in the United States. Subsequently, the formation of the Association for Women in Psychology (AWP) in 1973 provided a platform for feminist psychologists to collaborate and advance their research (Borzoueian & Motesaddei, 2021). Central ideas of feminist psychology challenge the notion of gender as a biological determinant, emphasizing instead its construction as a societal norm. Feminist psychologists argue that traditional psychological theories often overlook or misunderstand women’s experiences, leading to biased approaches to therapy and research. They advocate for a more inclusive understanding of gender and emphasize the importance of addressing prejudice and oppression in promoting psychological well-being (Borzoueian & Motesaddei, 2021). Innovative Theories and Approaches Feminist psychologists have developed innovative theories and methodologies to better understand the experiences of women and marginalized groups. Examples include relational-cultural therapy, which highlights the significance of relationships for mental health, and novel approaches to studying gender and power dynamics in interpersonal relationships (Borzoueian & Motesaddei, 2021). Historical and Societal Influences The establishment of feminist psychology was influenced by historical factors such as the women’s rights movement and second-wave feminism. These movements created a platform for women to voice their experiences and challenge societal norms, ultimately shaping the development of feminist psychology (DeBlaere et al., 2019). The social and cultural changes of the 1960s and 1970s, including the counterculture movement, also played a significant role in shaping feminist psychology. These changes prompted feminist psychologists to critique traditional psychological paradigms and advocate for more inclusive and equitable approaches (Medina et al., 2020). Guiding Social Thinking Feminist psychology challenges traditional gender roles and stereotypes, encouraging critical reflection on how these constructs influence individuals’ lives. By emphasizing intersectionality—the interconnectedness of various forms of oppression—feminist psychology promotes a broader understanding of social disparities and their impact on psychological well-being (McCormick-Huhn et al., 2019). Furthermore, feminist psychology advocates for social and ethical action to address systemic inequalities and promote gender equity. By challenging outdated ideologies and promoting inclusive practices, feminist psychology contributes to the creation of a more just and equitable society (Churchwell et al., 2020). Conclusion In conclusion, feminist psychology has emerged as a crucial framework for understanding and addressing issues of gender inequality and oppression. Through its emphasis on inclusivity, social justice, and ethical action, feminist psychology continues to guide social thinking and promote positive change in both psychological research and societal practices. References Borzoueian, M., & Motesaddei, F. (2021). Explaining female identity in the short story “lenge be lengeha” based on Karen Horney’s theory. Fiction Studies, 7(1), 69–86. Churchwell, K., Elkind, M. S. V., Benjamin, R. M., Carson, A. P., Chang, E. K., Lawrence, W., … Williams, O. (2020). Call to action: Structural racism as a fundamental driver of health disparities: A presidential advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 142(24). DeBlaere, C., Singh, A. A., Wilcox, M. M., Cokley, K. O., Delgado-Romero, E. A., Scalise, D. A., & Shawahin, L. (2019). Social justice in counseling psychology: Then, now, and looking forward. The Counseling Psychologist, 47(6), 938–962. Loney-Howes, R. (2019). The politics of the personal: The evolution of anti-rape activism from second-wave feminism to #MeToo. In #MeToo and the Politics of Social Change (pp. 21–35). McCormick-Huhn, K., Warner, L. R., Settles, I. H., & Shields, S. A. (2019). What if psychology took intersectionality seriously? Changing how psychologists think about participants. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 43(4), 036168431986643. PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 4 History and Influence of the New School of Thought Medina, L., Sabo, S., & Vespa, J. (2020). Population estimates and projections current population reports. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2020/demo/p25-1145.pdf Wypych, V. (2022). We are more than just spectators: Feminist psychology theory applied to sports psychology. Honors Projects in Applied Psychology. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.bryant.edu/honors_appliedpsychology/28/ PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 4 History and Influence of the New School of Thought

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PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 3 How Major Psychological Thought Informs Professional Behavior

PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 3 How Major Psychological Thought Informs Professional Behavior Name Capella University PSYC FPX 4100 History and Modern Systems of Psychology Prof. Name Date How Major Psychological Thought Informs Professional Behavior Psychological theories and perspectives have significantly influenced various professional fields, including healthcare, education, and business (Adams et al., 2019). Understanding the implications of major schools of psychological thought on professional behavior is essential for practitioners to deliver effective and evidence-based services. This report explores the influence of cognitive psychology, a major school of psychological thought, on professional behavior, particularly in nursing. It examines the pivotal events shaping cognitive psychology, its interaction with other schools of thought, and the cultural factors influencing its development. Furthermore, it delves into how knowledge derived from cognitive psychology informs professional behavior in nursing, offering practical applications. Events Affecting the Development of School Thought The Cognitive Revolution (1950s-1960s): This era witnessed a pivotal shift in psychology from behaviorism to cognitive psychology, marked by the emergence of novel methodologies for studying mental processes (Mandal, 2021). The Cognitive Revolution laid the groundwork for cognitive psychology as a distinct school of thought, emphasizing the significance of investigating mental processes in understanding human behavior. Information Processing Theory (1960s-1970s): Proposing an analogy between the human mind and a computer, this theory conceptualized mental processes such as perception and memory as forms of information processing (Sayood, 2018). It provided a framework for examining mental processes and their influence on behavior. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (1960s-present): Integrating cognitive psychology and behaviorism, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) aims to modify negative thoughts and behaviors to enhance mental health (American Psychological Association, 2017). Widely applied in treating various mental disorders, CBT has significantly impacted psychology. Neuroscience and Cognitive Psychology (1990s-present): Advancements in technologies like functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have facilitated the study of the brain’s role in cognitive processes, fostering a deeper understanding of cognitive psychology (Loued-Khenissi et al., 2018). Impact of Other Schools of Thought Behaviorism: Predominant before the rise of cognitive psychology, behaviorism prioritized the study of observable behavior over mental processes (Bordens & Horowitz, 2018). While influencing early cognitive psychology, it ultimately spurred its development by highlighting its limitations. Gestalt Psychology: Emphasizing perception and the organization of sensory information, Gestalt psychology influenced cognitive psychology by stressing the study of mental processes such as perception and attention (Çeliköz et al., 2019). Humanistic Psychology: Focused on subjective experience and personal growth, humanistic psychology has indirectly impacted cognitive psychology by influencing counseling and psychotherapy practices, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (Seligman, 2019). Evolutionary Psychology: Highlighting the role of evolutionary processes in shaping behavior and mental processes, evolutionary psychology offers insights into cognitive psychology and social cognition (Badcock et al., 2019). Impact of Other Cultures Western Culture: Cognitive psychology in the Western context reflects cultural values such as individualism and rational thinking (Scott, 2020). While beneficial, it has been critiqued for potentially overlooking the impact of social and cultural factors on human behavior. Eastern Culture: Eastern practices like mindfulness meditation have influenced cognitive-behavioral therapy, aligning with cognitive psychology principles (Hazlett-Stevens et al., 2018). Multiculturalism: Recognizing the diversity of human experiences, multiculturalism emphasizes the importance of considering cultural factors in understanding cognition and providing culturally sensitive care (Adams et al., 2019). Knowledge of Cognitive Psychology and Professional Behavior Understanding cognitive processes enables nurses to recognize cognitive biases and strive for objectivity in patient care (Narayan, 2019). Additionally, cognitive-behavioral interventions informed by cognitive psychology principles aid in managing mental health conditions (Youn & Marques, 2021). Integrating cultural factors into patient care ensures culturally sensitive practices, acknowledging the influence of cultural beliefs on cognition (Adams et al., 2019). Applying cognitive psychology in health education enhances the effectiveness of interventions by catering to individual learning styles and needs (Schmidt & Mamede, 2020). Conclusion Awareness of major schools of psychological thought, particularly cognitive psychology, informs professional behavior in various fields. By understanding cognitive processes, integrating cultural factors, and applying cognitive-behavioral interventions, practitioners can enhance patient outcomes and provide individualized care. Acknowledging the significance of psychological perspectives enriches professional practice and facilitates the delivery of high-quality services. References Adams, G., Estrada-Villalta, S., Sullivan, D., & Markus, H. R. (2019). The Psychology of neoliberalism and the neoliberalism of psychology. Journal of Social Issues, 75(1). https://doi.org/10.1111/josi.12305 American Psychological Association. (2017). What is cognitive behavioral therapy? American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/ptsd-guideline/patients-and-families/cognitive-behavioral Badcock, P. B., Friston, K. J., Ramstead, M. J. D., Ploeger, A., & Hohwy, J. (2019). The hierarchically mechanistic mind: An evolutionary systems theory of the human brain, cognition, and behavior. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 19(6), 1319–1351. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-019-00721-3 Bordens, K. S., & Horowitz, I. A. (2018). Social psychology. Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410604934 PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 3 How Major Psychological Thought Informs Professional Behavior Çeliköz, N., Erişen, Y., & Şahin, M. (2019). Cognitive learning theories with emphasis on latent learning, gestalt and information processing theories. Journal of Educational and Instructional Studies in the World, 9(3). https://avesis.yildiz.edu.tr/yayin/b7a5a4ef-a206-40a3-9d57-24891a62903c/cognitive-learning-theories-with-emphasis-on-latent-learning-gestalt-and-information-processing-theories Hazlett-Stevens, H., Singer, J., & Chong, A. (2018). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with older adults: A qualitative review of randomized controlled outcome research. Clinical Gerontologist, 42(4). https://doi.org/10.1080/07317115.2018.1518282 Loued-Khenissi, L., Döll, O., & Preuschoff, K. (2018). An overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 22(1), 17–45. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428118802631 Mandal, S. (2021). The Cognitive Revolution. Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science, 1(1), 1167–1177. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-19650-3_1309 Narayan, M. C. (2019). Addressing implicit bias in nursing: A review. AJN, American Journal of Nursing, 119(7), 36–43. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.naj.0000569340.27659.5a Sayood, K. (2018). Information theory and cognition: A review. Entropy, 20(9), 706. https://doi.org/10.3390/e20090706 PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 3 How Major Psychological Thought Informs Professional Behavior Schmidt, H. G., & Mamede, S. (2020). How cognitive psychology changed the face of medical education research. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 25(5), 1025–1043. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-020-10011-0 Scott, N. (2020). Cognitive psychology and tourism – surfing the “cognitive wave”: A perspective article. Tourism Review, 75(1), 49–51. https://doi.org/10.1108/tr-06-2019-0217 Seligman, M. E. P. (2019). Positive psychology: A personal history. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 15(1), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050718-095653 Youn, S. J., & Marques, L. (2021). Cognitive-behavioral strategies to manage anxiety. Psychiatric Annals, 51(5), 207–208. https://doi.org/10.3928/00485713-20210409-04

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PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 2 Applied Psychology in Professions

PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 2 Applied Psychology in Professions Name Capella University PSYC FPX 4100 History and Modern Systems of Psychology Prof. Name Date Applied Psychology in Professions Applied Psychology involves the practical application of psychological knowledge and theories to real-world issues across various domains such as living, education, industry, or environmental concerns (APA Dictionary of Psychology, n.d.). Counseling psychology, as a professional field, aims to assist individuals in coping with distress, difficulties, and problems to enhance their functioning in life. It utilizes education, training, guidance, and therapeutic interventions to support individuals during challenging times (Furman & Lepper, 2018). Psychologists equipped with culturally informed and evidence-based interventions and assessments focus on individuals’ strengths, backgrounds, and developmental trajectories. They also recognize the role of workplace and career experiences in shaping an individual’s personality. Description of the Historical Development of Counseling Psychology The evolution of counseling psychology (CP) as an applied specialty within the American Psychological Association (APA) dates back to the 1940s. Formal recognition of CP as a specialty occurred in 1946, reaffirmed in 1998, with significant milestones including the establishment of the discipline, crucial research journals, and pivotal conferences (Furman & Lepper, 2018). Organizations like the Society of Counseling Psychology (SCP) and the Council of Counseling Psychology Training Programs (CCPTP) played instrumental roles in CP’s development, particularly SCP, formerly known as Division 17. Noteworthy figures like John Whiteley trace CP’s origins to guidance practices and early therapeutic interventions like Carl Rogers’ person-centered therapy. The 1950s marked significant progress with the emergence of doctoral training standards, major conferences, and the establishment of the Journal of Counseling Psychology. This period laid the groundwork for CP’s subsequent growth and development (IResearchNet, n.d.). Analysis of Societal or Cultural Needs to Develop Counseling Psychology Counseling Psychology addresses the needs of individuals and society by providing structured support to navigate distress and societal challenges. Its evolution reflects a growing emphasis on social justice, equity, and inclusivity. Over time, CP has adapted to meet the diverse needs of various societal groups, including underprivileged populations (DeBlaere et al., 2019). The rise of cultural and cross-cultural psychology signifies a broader recognition of cultural diversity’s impact on human behavior and development. As globalization fosters increased cultural interactions, understanding cultural differences becomes essential for effective communication and collaboration (Schmitt, 2017). Analysis of How History of Counseling Psychology Informs Professional Behaviors The history of counseling psychology shapes professional behaviors by promoting ethical guidelines, advocating for social justice, and emphasizing holistic approaches to client well-being. Counseling psychologists are encouraged to address systemic issues, such as access to mental health services, and to undergo specialized training to meet evolving societal needs (Oh et al., 2017). Additionally, counseling psychology’s focus on human development informs professional behaviors by encouraging counselors to consider clients’ diverse backgrounds and cultural contexts. This holistic approach enhances the effectiveness of counseling interventions and fosters greater client satisfaction (Oh et al., 2017). Conclusion Counseling Psychology, recognized by the American Psychological Association (APA), plays a crucial role in supporting individuals’ mental health and well-being through evidence-based interventions. Its historical development reflects societal needs, including social justice and cultural diversity, shaping its evolution over time. By understanding its history and societal context, counseling psychologists can better address the complex challenges of contemporary society. References American Psychological Association. (2020). Counseling psychology. https://www.apa.org/ed/graduate/specialize/counseling# American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Applied psychology. https://dictionary.apa.org/applied-psychology Cooper, S. E., Campbell, L. F., & Smucker Barnwell, S. (2019). Telepsychology: A primer for counseling psychologists. The Counseling Psychologist, 47(8), 1074–1114. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000019895276 DeBlaere, C., Singh, A. A., Wilcox, M. M., Cokley, K. O., Delgado-Romero, E. A., Scalise, D. A., & Shawahin, L. (2019). Social justice in counseling psychology: Then, now, and looking forward. The Counseling Psychologist, 47(6), 938–962. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000019893283 Furman, T. M., & Lepper, T. L. (2018). Applied behavior analysis: Definitional difficulties. The Psychological Record, 68(1), 103–106. https://go.gale.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA539921067&v=2.1&it=r&linkaccess=abs&issn=00332933&p=AONE&sw=w&userGroupName=anon%7Edeebeec3 PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 2 Applied Psychology in Professions Hui-Spears, K., & Park-Saltzman, J. (2022). Social justice identity development for international counseling psychology students. The Counseling Psychologist, 001100002210994. https://doi.org/10.1177/00110000221099431 Lester, J. N., Wong, Y. J., O’Reilly, M., & Kiyimba, N. (2018). Discursive psychology: Implications for counseling psychology. The Counseling Psychologist, 46(5), 576–607. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000018780462 Oh, J., Stewart, A. E., & Phelps, R. E. (2017). Topics in the journal of counseling psychology, 1963-2015. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 64(6), 604–615. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000218 Schmitt, N. (2017). Reflections on the journal of applied psychology for 1989 to 1994: Changes in major research themes and practices over 25 years. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 564–568. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000053 PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 2 Applied Psychology in Professions

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PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 1 Community Presentation

PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 1 Community Presentation Name Capella University PSYC FPX 4100 History and Modern Systems of Psychology Prof. Name Date Layout Introduction/Background How Psychology Offers Culturally Similar Perspectives Evaluation of Similarities in Cultural Influences Evaluation of Differences in Cultural Influences Conclusion Introduction/Background Psychology in the Middle East has garnered significant attention in recent years, shedding light on the unique dynamics of psychological practices within this region (Hassan et al., 2021; Oakley et al., 2019). Understanding the key figures, central concerns, and theoretical conflicts within Middle Eastern psychology provides a comprehensive view of its evolution and divergence from Western psychology. Middle East Psychology The Arab region, comprising 22 member states across Asia and Africa, represents approximately 5% of the global population and is characterized by diverse cultural and economic landscapes (Saab et al., 2022). Islam serves as the predominant religion, with Arabic being the official language, influencing the socio-cultural fabric of the region (Saab et al., 2022). Key Figures of Islamic Psychology Islamic psychology boasts a rich history, with notable figures such as Ibn Sina, Muhammed Zakariyah-e-Razi, Al-Ghazali, and Ibn-Khaldun shaping its foundational principles (Martyn Shuttleworth, 2019). Their contributions have laid the groundwork for understanding the intersection of religion and psychology within Islamic contexts. Central Concerns and Theoretical Conflicts Muslim populations, particularly those residing in Western countries, encounter various challenges encompassing spiritual, biopsychosocial, and economic dimensions (Tanhan & Young, 2021). Despite the importance accorded to mental health stability in Islam, limited access to mental health services persists among Muslim communities (Tanhan & Young, 2021). Leveraging the expertise of Muslim mental health professionals becomes imperative in addressing these disparities through tailored interventions and research initiatives (Tanhan & Young, 2021). How Psychology Offers Culturally Similar Perspectives The integration of religion within psychological frameworks has gained traction, evident in initiatives such as the American Psychological Association’s Division 36 on the Psychology of Religion (APA, 2018). Studies highlight the positive correlation between religiosity and mental health, emphasizing the need for culturally sensitive approaches that resonate with diverse belief systems (Iqbal & Skinner, 2021). Evaluation of Similarities in Cultural Influences Cultural influences permeate both Islamic and Western psychology, underscored by shared values of justice and inclusivity (Rifai, 2022). The interplay of socio-political, religious, and economic factors shapes the psychological landscape, fostering a nuanced understanding of human behavior across diverse contexts (Rifai, 2022). Evaluation of Differences in Cultural Influences Disparities in acculturation levels and language proficiency pose significant challenges for high acculturated immigrants and ethnic minorities, hindering their access to mental health resources (Dahlan et al., 2019). Cultural barriers further compound these challenges, necessitating culturally tailored interventions to bridge the gap in mental health care delivery (Dahlan et al., 2019). Conclusion In conclusion, the juxtaposition of Islamic and Western psychology underscores both commonalities and differences in their cultural underpinnings. Acculturation, coupled with concerted efforts in research, training, and advocacy, holds the key to fostering mental health equity among diverse populations, transcending linguistic, ethnic, and geographical boundaries. References American Psychological Association. (2018). The psychology of religion: An empirical approach. Guilford Publications. Dahlan, R., Badri, P., Saltaji, H., & Amin, M. (2019). Impact of acculturation on oral health among immigrants and ethnic minorities: A systematic review. PLOS ONE, 14(2), e0212891. Hassan, S. A., Mohamed, F., Sheikh, N., Basualdo, G., Daniel, N. A., Schwartz, R., Gebreselassie, B. T., Beyene, Y. K., Gabreselassie, L., Bayru, K., Tadesse, B., Libneh, H. A., Shidane, M., Benalfew, S., Ali, A., Rao, D., Patel, R. C., & Kerani, R. P. (2021). “They wait until the disease has taken over you and the doctors cannot do anything about it”: Qualitative insights from Harambee! 2.0. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(23), 1-20. Iqbal, N., & Skinner, R. (2021). Islamic psychology: Emergence and current challenges. Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 43(1), 65–77. Martyn Shuttleworth. (2019). Islamic Psychology – History of Psychology. Explorable.com. PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 1 Community Presentation Oakley, L. P., López-Cevallos, D. F., & Harvey, S. M. (2019). The association of cultural and structural factors with perceived medical mistrust among young adult Latinos in rural Oregon. Behavioral Medicine, 45(2), 118-127. Rifai, D. S. L. (2022). Islam and the West in Ali al- Namlah ’s Reconciliatory Thought: Dr SLM RIFAI Part 1. Papers.ssrn.com. Saab, R., Harb, C., Ayanian, A. H., Badaan, V., & Albzour, and M. (2022). Psychology in the Arab region: A critical perspective on challenges and ways forward. APS Observer, 35. Tanhan, A., & Young, J. S. (2021). Muslims and mental health services: A concept map and a theoretical framework. Journal of Religion and Health. PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 1 Community Presentation

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